Four weeks after SE, PLK and PNPO immunoreactivities in dentate g

Four weeks after SE, PLK and PNPO immunoreactivities in dentate granule cells were similar to those in control animals, while their immunoreactivities were markedly reduced in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal cells

due to neuronal loss. Linear regression analysis identified a direct proportional relationship between PLK/PNPO immunoreactivity and normalized population spike amplitude ratio in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 region as excluded the data obtained from 4 weeks after SE. These findings indicate PF-02341066 concentration that the upregulation of PLK and PNPO immunoreactivities in principal neurons may not be involved in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition, but rather in enhanced excitability during epileptogenic periods. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The evolution of corpus callosum (CC) was integral find more to the development of higher cognitive processes and hemispheric specialization. An examination of CC morphology and organization across different primate species will further our understanding

of the evolution of these specified functions. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive technique to measure CC size and to approximate the degree of myelination in the corpus callosum, we report differences in CC morphology and organization in capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees, two divergent primate species that have independently evolved several behavioral and anatomical characteristics. Species differences in CC morphology were detected, with chimpanzees having a larger overall CC compared to capuchin monkeys. Additionally, chimpanzees had the genu as the largest subdivision; in capuchin monkeys, the genu and splenium were the largest subdivisions.

Sex differences in signal intensity were detected; capuchin monkey males had higher signal intensity values whereas chimpanzee females had higher signal intensity values. Thus, while capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees show some similarity in patterns of CC morphology, these species differ significantly in the regional organization of the CC. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Because of the debate about whether second-generation antipsychotic drugs are better than first-generation antipsychotic drugs, we did a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to compare the effects of these two types of drugs in patients with schizophrenia.

Methods We compared nine second-generation antipsychotic drugs with first-generation drugs for overall efficacy (main outcome), positive, negative and depressive symptoms, relapse, quality of life, extrapyramidal side-effects, weight gain, and sedation.

Findings We included 150 double-blind, mostly short-term, studies, with 21533 participants. We excluded open studies because they systematically favoured second-generation drugs. Four of these drugs were better than first-generation antipsychotic drugs for overall efficacy, with small to medium effect sizes (amisulpride -0.

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