A persistent mystery is why the phosphorylation of many bona fide

A persistent mystery is why the phosphorylation of many bona fide mTORC1 substrates is resistant to rapamycin.

We find that the in vitro kinase activity of mTORC1 toward peptides encompassing established phosphorylation selleck compound sites varies widely and correlates strongly with the resistance of the sites to rapamycin, as well as to nutrient and growth factor starvation within cells. Slight modifications of the sites were sufficient to alter mTORC1 activity toward them in vitro and to cause concomitant changes within cells in their sensitivity to rapamycin and starvation. Thus, the intrinsic capacity of a phosphorylation site to serve as an mTORC1 substrate, a property we call substrate quality, is a major determinant of its

sensitivity to modulators of the pathway. Our results reveal a mechanism through which mTORC1 effectors can respond differentially to the same signals.”
“Neutron stars and quark stars are not only characterized by their mass and radius but also by how fast they spin, through their moment of inertia, and how much they can be deformed, through their Love number and quadrupole moment. These depend sensitively on the star’s internal structure and thus on unknown nuclear physics. We find universal relations between the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment that are independent of the neutron and quark star’s internal structure. These can be used to learn about neutron star deformability through observations of the moment of inertia, break degeneracies in gravitational wave selleck detection to measure spin in binary inspirals, distinguish neutron stars from quark stars, and test general relativity in a nuclear structure-independent fashion.”
“Superfluid turbulence is a fascinating phenomenon for which a satisfactory theoretical framework is lacking. Holographic duality provides a systematic approach to studying such quantum turbulence by mapping the dynamics of a strongly interacting quantum liquid into the dynamics of classical gravity. We use this gravitational description to numerically

construct turbulent flows in a holographic superfluid in two spatial dimensions. We find that the superfluid kinetic energy spectrum obeys the Kolmogorov -5/3 scaling Entinostat manufacturer law, with energy injected at long wavelengths undergoing a direct cascade to short wavelengths where dissipation by vortex annihilation and vortex drag becomes efficient. This dissipation has a simple gravitational interpretation as energy flux across a black hole event horizon.”
“Ultrathin passive films effectively prevent the chemical attack of stainless steel grades in corrosive environments; their stability depends on the interplay between structure and chemistry of the constituents iron, chromium, and molybdenum (Fe-Cr-Mo). Carbon (C), and eventually boron (B), are also important constituents of steels, although in small quantities.

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