These results add molecular insights into turbot immune response

These results add molecular insights into turbot immune response induced by megalocytivirus and provide candidate proteins with application potentials in the control of megalocytivirus-associated disease. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“center dot Tomorrow’s Doctors provides overarching outcomes for undergraduate medical students on prescribing skills; however, detailed learning outcomes are not available.\n\nWHAT THIS STUDY ADDS\n\ncenter dot This study provides additional guidance for medical schools and teachers by

setting out detailed learning outcomes for prescribing.\n\ncenter dot The outcomes reflect the recent emphasis on teamwork and communication, as well as the need to minimize medication errors.\n\ncenter dot This is a further step towards defining practical GDC-0068 ic50 prescribing competence.\n\nAIMS\n\nThe question of whether new medical graduates are adequately prepared for the challenge of prescribing has been raised. Although broad outcomes for prescribing competency have been agreed, clarity is needed on the detailed outcomes expected of new AG 14699 graduates. This study aimed to create a consensus on the

required competencies for new graduates in the area of prescribing.\n\nMETHODS\n\nWe used a modified Delphi approach based on the findings of a systematic review of educational interventions for improved prescribing. Panellists were asked to rank the importance of a list of 53 possible learning outcomes and to add any additional outcomes felt

to be missing.\n\nRESULTS\n\nOf the 48 experts who were invited to participate, this website 28 agreed (58%). Forty-five learning outcomes were included from the original list of 53. A further nine outcomes were suggested by panellists, of which five were included. The wording of three outcomes was changed in line with suggestions from the panellists. Many of the agreed outcomes relate to improving patient safety through medication review, checking appropriateness of the drug for the patient, recognizing the prescriber’s limitations and seeking advice when needed. Enhanced communication with the patient and healthcare team, better documentation in the notes and discharge letters were key areas featured in this Delphi exercise.\n\nDISCUSSION\n\nThis study has identified 50 learning outcomes for teaching prescribing. These build on the existing British Pharmacological Society document by focusing specifically on prescribing, with greater emphasis on avoiding medication errors and better communication.”
“Little is known on the difference in the incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. Population-based incidence of these melanomas in Asian and Hispanic individuals is almost unknown.

If multisynaptic

afferents to the SCN are included, the n

If multisynaptic

afferents to the SCN are included, the number expands to approximately brain 85 areas providing input to the SCN. The IGL, a known contributor to circadian rhythm regulation, has a still greater level of complexity. This nucleus connects abundantly throughout the brain (to approximately 100 regions) by pathways that are largely bilateral and reciprocal. Few of these sites have been evaluated for their contributions to circadian rhythm regulation, although most have a theoretical possibility of doing so via the GHT. The anatomy of IGL connections suggests AG-120 research buy that one of its functions may be regulation of eye movements during sleep. Together, neural circuits AZD4547 purchase of the SCN and IGL are complex and interconnected. As yet, few have been tested with respect to their involvement in rhythm regulation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction. – Sleep inertia refers to the inability to attain full alertness following awakening from sleep and is a major component of hypersomnia. As event-related potentials (ERPs) are correlated to the degree of consciousness, they allow exploring information processing in transitional states of vigilance. Their modifications during forced awakening (FA) context have been shown

to reflect sleep inertia.\n\nObjectives. – To assess the diagnostic value of a FA test using an oddball stimulation protocol during a nap in a representative sample of patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).\n\nMethods. – One hundred and seventy three patients [30 narcolepsy, 62 idiopathic hypersomnia, 33 sleep apnoea syndrome, and 48 other (mainly psychiatric) hypersomnia] performed an auditory target detection stimulation task during pre-, post-nap wakefulness, and during two successive intra-nap FA while the EEG was simultaneously recorded. Both the accuracy of target detection and the ERPs were evaluated. ERPs during forced awakening test were Selleckchem SB202190 considered to reflect sleep inertia if they presented with a P300 delay and/or sleep negativities (N350/N550).\n\nResults. – Pre-nap behavior and ERPs were

normal in all patients. Behavioral results were significantly worse during FA than during wakefulness for all groups of patients. P300 latencies were significantly delayed on FA conditions in each group of patients except the psychiatric group. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of sleep inertia were 64% and 94%, respectively, with predictive values of 96% (positive) and 50% (negative).\n\nConclusions. – Our results suggest that the FA test could be helpful as a diagnostic procedure for discriminating neurological from psychiatric hypersomnia. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is classically described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism in mammals.

A2 was isolated from the sewage of a pesticide mill in China One

A2 was isolated from the sewage of a pesticide mill in China. One member of Klebsiella sp. A1 is a novel strain that could use atrazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The consortium showed high atrazine-mineralizing efficiency and about Selleck ACY-1215 83.3% of 5 g l(-1) atrazine could be mineralized after 24 h degradation. Contrary to many other reported microorganisms, the consortium was insensitive to some nitrogenous fertilizers commonly used, not only in presence of 200 mg l(-1) atrazine but also in 5 g l(-1) atrazine mediums. After 24 h incubation, 200 mg l(-1) atrazine was completely mineralized despite of the presence of urea, (NH(4))(2)CO(3) and

(NH(4))(2)HPO(4) in the medium. Very minor influence was observed when NH(4)Cl was added as additional nitrogen source. Advantages of the simple consortium, high mineralizing efficiency and insensitivity to most of exogenous nitrogen sources, all suggested application potential of the consortium for the CYT387 concentration bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated soils and waters.”
“OncoLogic (R) is a software program able to screen chemical compounds for toxicological effects. The software predicts the potential carcinogenicity of chemicals by applying rules of structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis. To validate the predictivity of OncoLogic (R) (Version 7.0), 123 compounds tested with the long-term carcinogenicity

bioassay on rodents were extracted from the ISSCAN database and were analyzed. The concordance between the OncoLogic (R) SAR analysis and the bioassay results was high. To better understand the strength of the SAR science in OncoLogic (R), we investigated

the influence of a select group of modulating factors on the predictions by the see more structural alerts.”
“The cochlear implant is the most successful bionic prosthesis and has transformed the lives of people with profound hearing loss. However, the performance of the “bionic ear” is still largely constrained by the neural interface itself. Current spread inherent to broad monopolar stimulation of the spiral ganglion neuron somata obviates the intrinsic tonotopic mapping of the cochlear nerve. We show in the guinea pig that neurotrophin gene therapy integrated into the cochlear implant improves its performance by stimulating spiral ganglion neurite regeneration. We used the cochlear implant electrode array for novel “close-field” electroporation to transduce mesenchymal cells lining the cochlear perilymphatic canals with a naked complementary DNA gene construct driving expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. The focusing of electric fields by particular cochlear implant electrode configurations led to surprisingly efficient gene delivery to adjacent mesenchymal cells. The resulting BDNF expression stimulated regeneration of spiral ganglion neurites, which had atrophied 2 weeks after ototoxic treatment, in a bilateral sensorineural deafness model.

The changes in Glx raise the possibility that behavior therapy an

The changes in Glx raise the possibility that behavior therapy and medication treat OCD symptoms through similar pathways. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To review the

available methods of evaluating the small airways disease in asthma and the therapeutic strategies to achieve better control using emerging extrafine particle inhaler technologies.\n\nData Sources: The PubMed, MEDLINE (Ebsco), Scirus, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were all scanned with Cross-search using the following keywords: asthma, small airways, hydrofluoroalkane 134a, extrafine particle, inhaled corticosteroid, long-acting b-agonist, spirometry, impulse oscillometry, nitrogen washout, exhaled nitric oxide, airway hyperresponsiveness, and adrenal suppression.\n\nStudy Selection: Key clinical studies considered THZ1 solubility dmso to being relevant to the topic under review were evaluated.\n\nResults: Selleck Navitoclax There is an unmet need in current asthma guidelines for those individuals who exhibit the small airways asthma phenotype with a preserved forced expiratory volume in 1 second but abnormal forced midexpiratory flow and peripheral airway resistance, which tends to be associated with poorer control. Extrafine hydrofluoroalkane solution formulations of inhaled corticosteroid either alone or in combination with long-acting

b-agonist may improve small airways outcomes and associated control.\n\nConclusion: From a pragmatic perspective, it makes sense to try to deliver asthma treatment to more of the lung to improve clinical outcomes, especially in patients who exhibit the small airways asthma phenotype. (C) 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier

Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The ability to predict meat drip loss by using either near infrared spectra (SPECTRA) or different meat quality (MQ) measurements, Such as pH(24), Minolta L*, a*, b* along with different chemometric approach, was investigated. Back propagation (BP) and counter propagation (CP) artificial neural networks (ANN) were used and compared to PLS (partial least squares) regression. Prediction models were created either by using MQ measurements or by using NIR spectral data as independent predictive variables. The analysis consisted of 312 samples of longissimus dorsi muscle. Data were split into training and test set using 2D Kohonen map. The error of drip loss prediction was similar for ANN (2.2-2.6%) and PLS models (2.2-2.5%) and it was higher for SPECTRA (2.5-2.6%) than for MQ (2.2-2.3%) based models. Nevertheless. the SPECTRA based models gave reasonable prediction errors and due to their simplicity of data acquisition represent an acceptable alternative to classical meat quality based models. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The electrochemical and spectral characteristics (i e , UV and CD

The electrochemical and spectral characteristics (i.e., UV and CD spectra) of RuMb were investigated in comparison with wild type myoglobin. The effect of the metal center on the redox properties of myoglobin is directly observed by electrochemical analysis, all of which may be compared with similar measurements of the wild type myoglobin. Unlike other metal reconstituted myoglobins, i.e., cobalt myoglobin and manganese myoglobin, fast and reversible electron transfer properties were observed for RuMb, which is comparable with wild type

myoglobin. The formal potential of 170 (+/- 10) mV vs. Ag vertical bar AgCl (sat. KCl) of RuMb was directly determined for the first time by cyclic voltammetry, where the k(0)’ value was estimated to be about 3 (+/- 0.2) x 10(-4) cm s(-1) at pH 6.8. Mediatorless and reversible spectroelectrochemical behaviors were also observed using an optically transparent

thin-layer electrode BLZ945 research buy cell (OTTLE). The present results suggest that the major redox properties of GNS-1480 concentration the protein result from both the metal porphyrin center and globin environment. The novel redox properties predict that the engineered RuMb has analogous biofunctionalities to the wild type myoglobin in contrast to other metal reconstituted myoglobins. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“ATP has been defined as a key mediator of asthma. In this study, we evaluated lung inflammation in mice deficient for the P2Y(2) purinergic receptor. We observed that eosinophil accumulation, a distinctive feature of lung allergic inflammation, was defective KU-57788 nmr in OVA-treated P2Y(2)-deficient mice compared with OVA-treated wild type animals. Interestingly, the upregulation of VCAM-1 was lower on lung endothelial cells of OVA-treated P2Y(2)(-/-) mice compared with OVA-treated wild type animals. Adhesion assays demonstrated that the action of UTP on leukocyte adhesion through the regulation of endothelial

VCAM-1 was abolished in P2Y(2)-deficient lung endothelial cells. Additionally, the level of soluble VCAM-1, reported as an inducer of eosinophil chemotaxis, was strongly reduced in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of P2Y(2)-deficient mice. In contrast, we observed comparable infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils in the BALF of LPS-aerosolized P2Y(2)(+/+) and P2Y(2)(-/-) mice. This difference could be related to the much lower level of ATP in the BALF of LPS-treated mice compared with OVA-treated mice. Our data define P2Y(2) as a regulator of membrane and soluble forms of VCAM-1 and eosinophil accumulation during lung inflammation. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 185: 3702-3707.”
“Background: UK-born infants of South Asian ethnic origin are known to have lower birthweights than their White British counterparts. When plotted on currently used birthweight charts they can be misclassified as small for gestational age.

FA-associated gene products are involved in the repair of DNA int

FA-associated gene products are involved in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Fifteen FA-associated genes have been identified, but the genetic basis in some individuals still remains unresolved. Here, we used whole-exome and Sanger sequencing on DNA of unclassified FA individuals and discovered biallelic germline mutations in ERCC4 (XPF), a structure-specific nuclease-encoding gene previously connected to xeroderma pigmentosum and segmental XFE progeroid syndrome. Genetic reversion and wild-type ERCC4 cDNA complemented the phenotype of the FA cell lines, providing genetic evidence that mutations in ERCC4 cause this FA subtype. Further biochemical and functional

analysis demonstrated that the identified FA-causing ERCC4 mutations strongly disrupt the function of XPF in DNA ICL repair without severely compromising nucleotide excision repair. Our data show that depending on the type of ERCC4 mutation and the resulting balance between both DNA repair activities, individuals present with one of the three clinically distinct disorders, highlighting the multifunctional nature of the XPF endonuclease in genome stability and human disease.”
“In situ gelating dextran-tyramine (Dex-TA) injectable hydrogels have previously shown

promising features for cartilage repair. Yet, despite suitable mechanical properties, this system lacks intrinsic biological signals. In contrast, platelet lysate-derived hydrogels are rich in growth Selleck MI-503 factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, but mechanically unstable. We hypothesized that the advantages of these systems may be combined in one hydrogel, which can be easily translated into clinical settings. Platelet lysate

was successfully incorporated into Dex-TA polymer solution prior to gelation. After enzymatic crosslinking, theological and morphological evaluations were performed. Subsequently, the effect of platelet lysate on cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation was determined. Finally, we evaluated the integration ARS-1620 cell line potential of this gel onto osteoarthritis-affected cartilage. The mechanical properties and covalent attachment of Dex-TA to cartilage tissue during in situ gel formation were successfully combined with the advantages of platelet lysate, revealing the potential of this enhanced hydrogel as a cell-free approach. The addition of platelet lysate did not affect the mechanical properties and porosity of Dex-TA hydrogels. Furthermore, platelet lysate derived anabolic growth factors promoted proliferation and triggered chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels play a critical role in cardiac action potential repolarization.

Staff agreed

Staff agreed buy ARN-509 education and ‘extra hands’ would address most barriers but did not consider organisational change.\n\nConclusions:\n\nRedesigning the model of care to reprioritise meal-time activities and redefine multidisciplinary roles and responsibilities would support coordinated nutrition care. However, effectiveness may also depend on hospital-wide leadership and support to empower staff and increase accountability within

a team-led approach.”
“Chemical dimerizers are powerful non-invasive tools for bringing molecules together inside intact cells. We recently introduced a rapidly reversible chemical dimerizer system which enables transient translocation of enzymes to and from the plasma membrane (PM). Here we have applied this system to transiently activate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) breakdown at the PM via translocation of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase (5Ptase). We

found that the PIP2 sensor phospholipase C-delta PH domain (PLC delta-PH) is released from the PM upon addition of the reversible chemical dimerizer rCD1. By this website outcompeting rCD1, rapid release of the 5Ptase from the PM is followed by PIP2 recovery. This permits the observation of the PIP2-dependent clathrin assembly at the PM. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Envenomation by Loxosceles species (brown spider) can lead to local dermonecrosis and to serious systemic effects. The main toxic component in the venom of these spiders is sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) and various isoforms of this toxin are present in Loxosceles venoms. We have produced a new anti-loxoscelic serum by immunizing horses with recombinant SMase D. In the present study, we compared the neutralization Selleck Selumetinib efficacy of the new anti-loxoscelic serum and anti-arachnidic serum (the latter serum is used for therapy for loxoscelism in Brazil) against the toxic effects of venoms from spiders

of the genus Loxosceles. Neutralization tests showed that anti-SMase D serum has a higher activity against toxic effects of L. intermedia and L. laeta venoms and similar or slightly weaker activity against toxic effects of L. gaucho than that of Arachnidic serum. These results demonstrate that recombinant SMase D can replace venom for anti-venom production and therapy.”
“The objective of this study was to examine the effects of FSH and LH on oestradiol-17 beta and progesterone production by buffalo granulosa cells cultured under serum-free conditions. Granulosa cells (3 x 10(5)) from small (<= 5 mm diameter) follicles were cultured for up to 4 days in 48-well plates coated with 3.3 mu g/cm(2) fibronectin in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) : nutrient mixture F-12 Ham (1: 1 ratio) supplemented with 10(-7) M androstenedione, 5 mu g/ml human apotransferrin and 0.1% bovine serum albumin, in the presence or absence of FSH or LH (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 ng/ml each).

All rights reserved “
“Gallstone disease exacts a considerab

All rights reserved.”
“Gallstone disease exacts a considerable financial and social burden worldwide leading to frequent physician visits and hospitalizations. Based on their composition, gallstones are categorized as cholesterol, black pigment, and brown pigment, with each category having a unique structural, epidemiologic, and risk factor profile. Cholesterol crystal formation requires the presence of one or more of the following: (a) cholesterol supersaturation,

learn more (b) accelerated nucleation, or (c) gallbladder hypomotility/bile stasis. Some risk factors for cholesterol stones include age, gender, genetics, obesity, rapid weight loss, and ileal disease. Generally, pigment stones are formed by the precipitation of bilirubin in bile, with black stones associated with chronic hemolytic

states, cirrhosis, Gilbert syndrome, or cystic fibrosis, and brown stones associated with chronic bacterial or parasitic infections.”
“BACKGROUND: Microemulsion is the easiest and cleanest of the popular methods of synthesizing nanomaterial. This work investigated the possibility of forming a single-phase microemulsion using ethanediyl-alpha,beta-bis(cetyldimethylammonium bromide), termed EbCDAB, in a n-hexanol/water system, and looked for the best scale of microemulsion to synthesize TiO2 to give the best cleaning of GSK1210151A organic pollution.\n\nRESULTS: Results confirm that EbCDAB, n-hexanol and water form a microemulsion system, and this system is an effective way to synthesize nanoparticles of TiO2. Photo catalysis experiments showed sample E6-3 to be the best catalyst, and it decomposed 82% of Methyl Orange (10 mg L-1) in 60 min under UV-light irradiation. E6-3 had 1.4 times higher activity than the

commercial P25. Analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermographic differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IR), showed that particles of E6-3 were of size around 11 nm and of anatase phase.\n\nCONCLUSION: The best microemulsion was found to have weight ratio n-hexanol:EbCDAB:water of 6:3:1. At this ratio, TiO2 nanoparticles were easily produced. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Eelgrass (Zostera marina) forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread Tubastatin A cell line population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms.

Prognosis is excellent, as recovery was the rule in all the repor

Prognosis is excellent, as recovery was the rule in all the reported cases.”
“Nuclear factor (NF) kappa B is a pleiotropic transcription factor that is ubiquitously selleck chemicals expressed. After transplantation of solid organs, NF-kappa

B in the graft is activated within a few hours as a consequence of ischemia/reperfusion and then again after a few days in intragraft infiltrating cells during the process of acute allograft rejection. In the present article, we review the components of the NF-kappa B pathway, their mechanisms of activation, and their role in T cell and antigen-presenting cell activation and differentiation and in solid organ allograft rejection. Targeted inhibition of NF-kappa B in selected cell

types may promote graft survival with fewer adverse effects compared with global immunosuppressive therapies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Previous behavioral research has revealed a positivity effect that occurs with aging, with older adults focusing more on positive information and less on negative emotional stimuli as compared to young adults. Questions have been raised as to whether this effect exists in the rapid detection of information or whether Selonsertib Apoptosis inhibitor it operates only at later stages of processing. In the present study, we used eye-tracking and neuroimaging methodologies to examine whether the two age groups accomplished the detection of emotional information on a visual search task using the same mechanisms. Eye-tracking results revealed no significant age differences buy AZD8931 in detection or viewing time of emotional targets as a function of valence. Despite their general similarity in task performance, neuroimaging results revealed an age-related valence-based reversal in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) activity, with detection of negative compared to positive targets

activating the MPFC more for younger adults, and detection of positive compared to negative targets activating the MPFC more for older adults. These results suggest that age-related valence reversals in neural activity can exist even on tasks that require only relatively automatic processing of emotional information.”
“Aims/hypothesis Gut microbiota (GM) and diet both appear to be important in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Fermentable fibres (FFs), of which there is an ample supply in natural, diabetes-promoting diets, are used by GM as a source of energy. Our aim was to determine whether FFs modify GM and diabetes incidence in the NOD mouse. Methods Female NOD mice were weaned to a semisynthetic diet and the effects of FF supplementation on diabetes incidence and insulitis were evaluated. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to determine the effects imposed to gene transcripts in the colon and lymph nodes. Changes to GM were analysed by next-generation sequencing.

Conclusions: TBL1X is in the Wnt signaling pathway, which has

\n\nConclusions: TBL1X is in the Wnt signaling pathway, which has previously been implicated as having a role in autism. Deletions in the Xp22.2 to Xp22.3 region containing TBL1X and surrounding genes are associated with several genetic syndromes that include intellectual disability and autistic features. Our results, based on meta-analysis, joint

analysis and replication analysis, suggest that TBL1X may play a role in ASD risk.”
“Identification of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is essential for successful endoscopic endonasal cavernous sinus tumor surgery. This study aimed to develop a method for identifying the ICA in cavernous sinus tumors at the superior part of the cavernous sinus. Ten fresh cadavers were studied with a 4-mm 0A degrees and 30A Selleckchem CA4P degrees endoscope to identify surgical landmarks of the ICA in the cavernous sinus. Clinical cases of cavernous sinus tumors selleckchem were surgically treated using an endoscopic transpterygoid approach. Anatomical study indicated the ICA at the superior part of the cavernous sinus can be identified using three steps: 1) exposure of the optic nerve sheath by drilling the optic canal; 2) identification of the proximal orifice of the optic nerve sheath at the transition of the optic nerve sheath and dura mater of the tuberculum sellae; and 3) identification of the clinoid segment

of the ICA at the distal dural ring just below the proximal orifice of the optic nerve sheath. Although the ICA was encased and transposed by

tumors in preliminary surgical cases, the clinoid segment of the ICA was safely exposed at the superior part of the cavernous sinus using this method. Dural structures around the cavernous sinus are key to identifying the ICA at the superior part of the cavernous sinus. This method is expected to reduce the risk of ICA injury during endoscopic endonasal surgery for cavernous sinus tumors.”
“A general analysis of the behaviour of “Cebus” shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information find more shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral) and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr.