“Occupation has been associated with cognitive reserve in


“Occupation has been associated with cognitive reserve in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Here we assess the relationship between cerebral metabolic deficits in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and occupation characteristics.

Using factor analysis, we derived verbal, physical and visuospatial occupation scores from the US Department of Labor, Occupational Information Network and related these scores to regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilization in 31 patients diagnosed with behavioral variant bvFTD, controlling for cognitive status (CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery), gender and education. Regression analyses showed a marked inverse association between glucose metabolism and (a) verbal occupation scores in left prefrontal cortex and, (b) physical occupation characteristics Danusertib solubility dmso in right supplementary motor area. We concluded that, consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, lifelong occupation characteristics are related to focal cerebral metabolic deficits in bvFTD. Specific occupation demands spanning decades may strengthen cognitive resistance to pathology. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Gemcitabine chemical structure rights reserved.”
“Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection

and transformation are associated with an incremental switch in the expression of the Src-related protein tyrosine kinases Lck and Lyn. We examined the physical and functional interactions of Lyn with receptors and signal Angiogenesis inhibitor transduction proteins in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Lyn coimmunoprecipitates with the interleukin-2 beta receptor (IL-2R beta) and JAK3 proteins; however, the association of Lyn with the IL-2R beta and Lyn kinase activity was independent of IL-2 stimulation. Phosphorylation of Janus kinase 3

(JAK3) and signal transducers and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) proteins was reduced by treatment of cells with the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 or by ectopic expression of a dominant negative Lyn kinase protein.”
“It has been shown that synchrony of neuronal oscillations plays a critical role in effective communication between functionally distinct brain areas involving motor-sensory integration. However, the patterns of cortico-cortical coupling and their relation to behavioural success are widely unknown. Here, we analysed changes in cortico-cortical coherence during an unimanual visuomotor task and their correlation with performance. A 28-channel-EEC was attained in 27 healthy subjects during the tracking of an irregularly fluctuating target on a screen by manipulating a force sensor with the right index finger and thumb. For oscillatory power in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and the lower beta-band (betal, 13-20 Hz), we found a decrease in central and occipital areas during performance. Interregional coherence between contralateral frontal and central areas was enhanced in the alpha band.

Cox regression analyses suggested that increasing age (P = 001;

Cox regression analyses suggested that increasing age (P = .001; hazard ratio, 1.16 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.26) and renal disease (P = .018; hazard ratio, 3.48; 95% confidence

interval, 1.25-9.72) were associated with decreased survival.

Conclusions: Coronary artery bypass grafting + reduction annuloplasty for functional ischemic mitral regurgitation predictably reduces mitral regurgitation and relieves symptoms. This treatment of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation is associated with improved indices of ventricular function, improved New York Heart Association class, and excellent freedom from recurrent mitral insufficiency. Although long-term prognosis remains guarded, this multicenter study delineates

the intermediate-term benefits of such an approach. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:91-7)”
“BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) LY2109761 solubility dmso https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pp2.html is documented as an effective therapeutic option for patients with poststroke pain. However, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate local cerebral glucose metabolism before and after MCS in patients with poststroke pain.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlu) was measured in 6 patients with poststroke pain before MCS. Their lesions were located in the corona radiata, internal capsule, and thalamus. An epidural electrode was implanted PLX-4720 mouse under the monitoring of intraoperative neuronavigation and somatosensory evoked/motor evoked potentials. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was repeated in 4 patients (67%) who underwent successful MCS. Asymmetry of CMRGlu was semiquantitatively analyzed using an automated region of interest setting method. Before MCS, the ratio of CMRGlu in the ipsilateral to contralateral thalamus was 0.81 +/- 0.13 (n = 6), (range, 0.63-0.97). However, there was no significant asymmetry of CMRGlu in other regions. Successful MCS significantly improved the

asymmetry of CMRGlu in the ipsilateral thalamus from 0.81 +/- 0.14 to 0.89 +/- 0.17 (P < .01, n = 4). The therapeutic effect was proportional to the improvement of CMRGlu asymmetry (R = 0.79, P = 0.28; single regression analysis).

CONCLUSION: Poststroke pain is closely related to the reduced glucose use in the thalamus contralateral to the painful area. Successful MCS significantly improves glucose use in the thalamus ipsilateral to MCS, suggesting that electrical stimulation of the motor cortex may activate the corticothalamic connection from the motor cortex.”
“Objective: Operation for infective endocarditis is associated with the highest mortality of any valve disease, with overall rates of in-hospital mortality exceeding 20%. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was examined to develop a simple risk scoring system and identify areas for quality improvement.

These temporal patterns in statin use closely mimicked trends in

These temporal patterns in statin use closely mimicked trends in the diabetic population not receiving dialysis. The 4D trial had no impact on statin use when we restricted the analysis to incident statin prescriptions or expanded the characteristics of the dialysis patients considered for study. Thus, we found that publication of a large, expensive, see more randomized controlled trial in patients receiving

hemodialysis had no immediate impact on clinical practice. The use of a common cardiovascular medication in this patient population appears to be influenced by other factors. Kidney International (2009) 76, 1172-1179; doi:10.1038/ki.2009.323; published online 23 September 2009″
“During sepsis endothelial dysfunction is an important pathogenetic mechanism in acute kidney injury (AKI). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia is associated with renal hemodynamic changes such as alterations of renal blood flow (RBF), vascular resistance, and glomerular filtration rate. We used adenoviral delivery of an engineered variant of native angiopoietin-1 (COMP-angiopoietin-1) containing anti-inflammatory and anti-permeability functions, to determine if regulation of renal endothelial cell dysfunction

may have a beneficial role in preventing AKI during LPS-induced endotoxemia in mice. This treatment prevented the endotoxin-induced decrease of RBF and mean arterial pressure while improving glomerular filtration rate. Treatment also mitigated the effects of LPS on renal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 protein expression, the number of ER-HR3-positive macrophages that infiltrated the kidney, serum nitrate/nitrite levels, MCC950 solubility dmso renal inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression, the induction of tubular epithelial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and renal microvascular permeability. Our findings show that COMP-angiopoietin-1, an endothelium-oriented therapeutic agent, protects against AKI caused by endotoxemia. Kidney International (2009)

76, 1180-1191; doi:10.1038/ki.2009.387; published online 7 October 2009″
“Medication errors in patients with reduced creatinine clearance are harmful Phospholipase D1 and costly; however, most studies have been conducted in large academic hospitals. As there are few studies regarding this issue in smaller community hospitals, we conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study in six community hospitals (100 to 300 beds) to assess the incidence and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs) in patients with reduced creatinine clearance. A chart review was performed on adult patients hospitalized during a 20-month study period with serum creatinine over 1.5 mg/dl who were exposed to drugs that are nephrotoxic or cleared by the kidney. Among 109,641 patients, 17,614 had reduced creatinine clearance, and in a random sample of 900 of these patients, there were 498 potential ADEs and 90 ADEs. Among these ADEs, 91% were preventable, 51% were serious, 44% were significant, and 4.

In anesthetized animals, cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) pr

In anesthetized animals, cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) produced a general decrease of the firing rate and bursting

of DA neurons, sometimes preceded by a transient increase in both parameters, as previously reported by others. In awake rats, however, injection of cocaine led to a very different pattern of changes in firing. A decrease in firing rate and bursting was observed in only 14% of DA neurons. Most of the other DA neurons MK-4827 concentration underwent increases in firing rate and bursting: these changes were correlated with locomotor activity in 52% of the neurons, but were uncorrelated in 29% of them. Drug concentration measurements indicated that the observed differences between the two conditions did not have a pharmacokinetic origin. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cocaine injection differentially affects the electrical activity of DA neurons in awake and anesthetized states. The observed increases in neuronal activity may in part reflect the cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation found ex vivo in

these neurons. Our observations also show that electrophysiological recordings in awake animals can uncover drug effects, which are masked by general anesthesia. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 1559-1571; doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.339; published online 1 February 2012″
“Cellular energy homeostasis is a crucial function of oxidative tissues and is altered in obesity, a continuously rising health problem. Lipid E7080 molecular weight droplets (LD) are DOK2 thought to play a central role in lipid homeostasis by mediating the transient storage of fatty acids in the form of triglyceride, while preventing high levels of toxic lipid intermediates or oxidized lipids that mediate cellular lipotoxicity. Members of the perilipin protein family coating LD surfaces have been found to serve important regulatory and structural functions crucial to the regulation of lipid stores. This review examines the results

of studies on one of the newest members of the perilipin family, perilipin 5, which has emerged as a putative key player in LD function in oxidative tissues.”
“Objectives. Despite the rapid expansion of the antiaging cosmetic industry in recent years, little is known about the current social judgment consequences of concealing one’s age. In two studies, we examined perceivers’ evaluations and mental representations of individuals who engage in age concealment.

Methods. In Study 1, we assessed young and older adults’ reactions toward a middle-aged or older adult target who engaged in mild or major forms of age concealment. In Study 2, we examined the social consequences of age concealment in greater detail by including younger middle-aged targets and expanding the range of concealment procedures used.

Results.

01), while for young there was no statistical significant differe

01), while for young there was no statistical significant difference with T(a) 28 degrees C; (4) the shin of the elderly was seven and nine times less sensitive to warmth when compared to those of the cheek at T(a) 28 and 22 degrees C, respectively; and (5) warm thresholds were 3-4 degrees C greater at T(a) 22 degrees C than at 28 degrees C, only check details for the elderly males’ shin and foot (p < 0.05), while for young the difference between T(a) 22 and 28 degrees C was not statistically significant. The results indicate that age-related differences in cutaneous warm perception appear to be non-uniform over the body and significant on extremities; there is

a greater bluntness of warm sensitivity in the cool environment for elderly males. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) click here is an important neurotransmitter for a number of brain functions and widely distributed throughout the brain. Physiological and pharmacological relationship between 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in the regulation of 5-HT neurotransmission has now been documented. A relationship between 5-HT1A receptors and 5-HTT is also suggested by the pathophysiology of depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressants. We have scanned 42 healthy adults with both [11C] WAY-100635 and [11C] DASB to investigate the anatomical co-distribution of multiple serotonergic

markers. We hypothesized that lower 5-HTT densities in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and limbic regions will be accompanied by lower

5-HT1A receptor density in the same regions, contributing to the 5-HT1A receptor desensitization. In addition, variations in DRN 5-HT1A receptor density can theoretically influence the density and/or function of other serotonin receptor subtypes and the 5-HTT consequent to changes in serotonergic tone. In a comparatively large sample of volunteers, we have shown that the relationship Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase between 5-HT1A and 5-HTT PET indices was complex. We were unable to demonstrate robust, intra-regional relationships between 5-HT1A and 5-HTT densities. Inter-regionally, DRN 5-HT1A receptors were related to cortical (temporal and frontal regions) and paralimbic (insula), but not limbic 5-HTT. This latter finding may reflect differences in 5-HT tone between individuals, and highlights probable substrates sensitive to variations in DRN 5-HT function. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 2258-2265; doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.113; published online 13 July 2011″
“When animals consume less food, they must reduce their body temperature to maximize growth. However, high temperatures enhance locomotion and other performances that determine survival and reproduction. Therefore, thermoregulatory behaviors during different metabolic states reveal the relative importance of conserving energy and sustaining performance.

Ovine CRF (10 nM) induced an increase in mIPSC frequency in 5-HT

Ovine CRF (10 nM) induced an increase in mIPSC frequency in 5-HT neurons recorded from naive rats, an effect that was suppressed by swim stress. The inward current elicited by oCRF in both 5-HT and non-5-HT neurons was also blocked by swim stress. Ovine CRF increased mIPSCs amplitude

and charge in both 5-HT and non-5-HT neurons, but this effect Selleckchem Fosbretabulin was not modified by swim stress. In concert with our previous findings that swim stress decreased input resistance, action potential threshold and action potential duration and increased glutamatergic synaptic activity the overall primary effect of swim stress is to increase the excitability of 5-HT neurons. These data provide a mechanism at the cellular level for the immobility induced by swim stress and identifies critical components of the raphe circuitry responsible for the Selleck AZD1080 altered output of 5-HT neurons induced by swim stress. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Controversy surrounds the treatment of chronic aortic dissection. Open surgical and endovascular experiences include mixed populations treated with evolving strategies and limited follow-up. We establish a standard against which endovascular repair can be compared by assessing outcomes after open repair of chronic distal aortic dissections anatomically suitable to stent-grafting.

Methods:

From 2000 to 2008, 169 patients underwent open repair of the descending thoracic artery only (n = 88) or thoracoabdominal (n = 81) chronic aortic dissection (elective in 98, urgent/emergency in 71). Chart review and 3-dimensional assessment of computed tomography were performed. Poor outcome included all-cause mortality or vascular reintervention.

Results: Thirty-day mortality was 8%(n = 14). Serious complications included neurologic (n = 12 [spinal cord n = Microtubule Associated 4, 2.4%]), respiratory (n = 32), and renal failure (n = 1 descending thoracic artery only vs 17 thoracoabdominal,

P < .001). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease predicted early mortality (hazard ratio 8.0, P = .005). Survival at 1, 2, and 5 years was 76%, 69%, and 55%, respectively; 23 patients (14%) required reintervention. Event-free survival at 5 years was 51% and 47% after descending thoracic artery only or thoracoabdominal repair, respectively. Greater maximum aortic diameter (hazard ratio 1.9, P = .03) and greater diameter at the diaphragm (hazard ratio 3.7, P = .01) or renal segment (hazard ratio 4.3, P = .03) predicted poor outcome.

Conclusions: Early outcomes are good and late outcomes are less than desirable after open repair of chronic distal aortic dissection, regardless of the extent of repair. High-risk and late-stage patients with larger and more extensive aneurysmal degeneration warrant further investigation, including the use of newer, lessinvasive techniques. Select patients at risk for aneurysmal degeneration should undergo a more aggressive initial approach with aortic dissection repair.

Patients in group 1 had significantly larger cystographic capacit

Patients in group 1 had significantly larger cystographic capacity at 2, 4, 5 and 6 years after successful bladder closure compared to those in group 2 (p < 0.05). The bladder tended to grow at a significantly slower rate in group 2 (9.38 cc yearly) compared to group Defactinib ic50 1 (14.76 cc yearly, p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Patients with initial failed bladder exstrophy closure showed significantly smaller cystographic capacities and slower bladder growth compared to those who underwent successful neonatal bladder closure. These data clearly underscore the importance of a secure, successful primary closure.”
“The establishment and maintenance of polarized plasma membrane domains is essential for cellular function and proper development

of organisms. The molecules and pathways involved in determining cell polarity are remarkably well conserved between animal species. Historically, exocytic mechanisms have received primary emphasis among trafficking routes responsible for cell polarization. Accumulating evidence click here now reveals that endocytosis plays

an equally important role in the proper localization of key polarity proteins. Intriguingly, some polarity proteins can also regulate the endocytic machinery. Here, we review emerging evidence for the reciprocal regulation between polarity proteins and endocytic pathways, and discuss possible models for how these distinct processes could interact to create separate cellular domains.”
“Alexithymia is characterized by a difficulty in identifying and describing one’s emotions. This study addressed the question

of whether alexithymic tendencies are related to limited affective reactivity to briefly presented emotional stimuli. Skin conductance responses were assessed and backward masking was used to minimize elaborated processing of emotional pictures. Results indicated that alexithymic tendencies are associated with smaller electrodermal responses to briefly presented negative pictures. These effects were driven by difficulties in identifying and communicating emotions whereas externally orientated thinking was Dipeptidyl peptidase unrelated to affective reactivity. We conclude that there is an early processing deficit in response to negative stimuli in participants with high scores in alexithymia. Differences in the early emotional reactivity to arousing material could contribute to difficulties in emotional processes related to alexithymia.”
“Purpose: We studied the clinical evolution of vesicoureteral reflux after endoscopic puncture of ureterocele in pediatric duplex systems. Materials and

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of children with duplex system ureteroceles treated between 1992 and 2007. We analyzed patient age, prenatal diagnosis, urinary tract infection at presentation, differential renal function and preoperative vesicoureteral reflux. The fate of associated vesicoureteral reflux after endoscopic puncture of ureterocele was specifically addressed.

Thus, this review suggests that many previous findings can be rei

Thus, this review suggests that many previous findings can be reinterpreted in this light. Critically, we also make several suggestions about test construction, study design, and statistical analyses that the field might use to overcome this potential confound. Our suggestions may also have implications for drug selleck discovery and regulatory approval of cognitive-enhancing adjunctive agents, in terms of study design and/or test psychometric characteristics, including the development of tests that are relatively insensitive to practice-related changes. Such advances might be important

for improving the methodology involved in the assessment of cognitive change in treatment studies. Neuropsychopharmacology (2010) 35, 1053-1062; doi: 10.1038/npp.2009.211;published online 20 January 2010″
“Objective: Inhaled nitric oxide has been shown to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, but it is limited by toxicity, the need for special monitoring, and cost. Inhaled prostacyclin also decreases pulmonary artery pressure, is relatively free of toxicity, requires no specific monitoring, and is less expensive. The objective of this study was to compare nitric oxide and prostacyclin in the treatment of pulmonary Blasticidin S nmr hypertension, refractory hypoxemia, and right ventricular dysfunction in thoracic transplant recipients in a prospective, randomized, crossover pilot trial.

Methods:

Heart transplant and lung transplant recipients were randomized to nitric oxide or prostacyclin as initial treatment, followed by a crossover to the Telomerase other agent after 6 hours. Pulmonary vasodilators were initiated in the operating room for pulmonary hypertension, refractory hypoxemia, or right ventricular dysfunction. Nitric oxide was administered at 20 ppm, and prostacyclin was administered at 20,000 ng/mL. Hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters were recorded before and after initiation of pulmonary vasodilator therapy. At 6 hours, the hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters were recorded again, just before discontinuing the initial agent. Crossover baseline parameters were measured 30 minutes after

the initial agent had been stopped. The crossover agent was then started, and the hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters were measured again 30 minutes later.

Results: Heart transplant and lung transplant recipients (n = 25) were randomized by initial treatment (nitric oxide, n = 14; prostacyclin, n = 11). Nitric oxide and prostacyclin both reduced pulmonary artery pressure and central venous pressure, and improved cardiac index and mixed venous oxygen saturation on initiation of therapy. More importantly, at the 6-hour crossover trial, there were no significant differences between nitric oxide and prostacyclin in the reduction of pulmonary artery pressures or central venous pressure, or in improvement in cardiac index or mixed venous oxygen saturation.


“Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major


“Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability

worldwide. Actual treatment involves surgery and/or thrombolytic drugs, but there is an urgent need for new approaches. Periodic acceleration, a rocking headward to footward movement of the whole body, is a non-invasive method to induce pulsatile shear stress on the vascular endothelium eliciting an enhanced production and secretion of endothelium-derived products such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and adrenomedullin. All these products have been shown to protect the brain from ischemic injuries. A rat model of focal brain ischemia was treated with application of periodic acceleration Belnacasan for 3 h immediately after the onset of ischemia. Controls remained static for the same period of time. Brain damage was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biochemical markers. A significant reduction in brain damage was observed, 7 days post-ischemia, in rocked

rats when compared with the static controls, through MRI. Furthermore, rocked animals had significantly lower levels of Beclin 1 and fractin than their static counterparts, and some isoforms of nitric oxide synthase were regulated by periodic acceleration. Our results show that periodic acceleration may provide a novel, affordable, non-invasive therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding find more animal lectin having pleiotropic effects on cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. This lectin has been shown to be involved in phagocytosis by macrophages and in inflammation. Here we investigated an involvement of galectin-3 in the regulatory process of inflammatory bone resorption in rats

with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA rats) accompanying severe bone destruction in the ankle joints. The protein level of galectin-3 in the ankle-joint extracts was markedly augmented at week 3 after adjuvant injection, at the time when severe bone destruction was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an extremely high expression ever of galectin-3 in macrophages and granulocytes infiltrated in the area of severe bone destruction. To estimate the role of galectin-3 in osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption, recombinant galectin-3 was added to in vitro culture systems. Galectin-3 markedly inhibited the formation of osteoclasts in cultures of murine osteoclast precursor cell line as well as in rat bone marrow culture systems. This inhibition was not observed by heat-inactivated galectin-3 or by galectin-7. Although recombinant galectin-3 did not affect signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), it specifically suppressed the induction of nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1).

In the present study, we conducted DNA microarray analysis of maj

In the present study, we conducted DNA microarray analysis of major depression using postmortem prefrontal cortices. The gene expression patterns were compared between the controls and subjects with major depression. As a result, 99 genes were listed as the differentially expressed genes

in major depression, of which several genes such as FGFR1, NCAM1, and CAMK2A were of interest. Gene ontology analysis suggested an overrepresentation of genes selleck inhibitor implicated in the downregulation or inhibition of cell proliferation. The present results may support the hypothesis that major depression is associated with impaired cellular proliferation and plasticity. Comparison between the controls and suicide victims

with major depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia was also conducted in the present study. Two genes, CAD and ATP1A3, were differentially expressed in the three comparisons in the same direction. Interestingly, these two genes were also included in the differentially expressed 99 genes in major depression. It may be worth investigating the genes in relation to suicide or major depression. Torin 1 nmr (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.”
“Interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of preterm birth can be primary (directed to all women), secondary (aimed at eliminating or reducing existing risk), or tertiary (intended to improve outcomes for preterm

infants). Most efforts so far have been tertiary interventions, such Glycogen branching enzyme as regionalised care, and treatment with antenatal corticosteroids, tocolytic agents, and antibiotics. These measures have reduced perinatal morbidity and mortality; but the incidence of preterm birth is increasing. Advances in primary and secondary care, following strategies used for other complex health problems, such as cervical cancer, will be needed to prevent prematurity-related illness in infants and children.”
“The mammalian pineal gland is an important component of the circadian system. In the present study, we examined the expression of roughly 8000 genes in the rat pineal gland as a function of time of day under light-dark (LD) cycles and in constant dark (DD) using oligo DNA microarray technique. We identified 47 and 13 genes that showed higher levels at night and day, respectively, under LD. The same patterns of expression were also observed in DD. About half of the genes that peaked at night have a known biological function, i.e., transcription factors and proteins that are involved in signaling cascades, whereas 14 are expressed sequence tags and 8 have an unknown biological function. Twelve of the genes that were up-regulated at night were also up-regulated after I h NE stimulation, thus suggesting that the expression of these genes is controlled by adrenergic mechanisms.