2%), wearing a face mask by 91 (48.9%), cough etiquette by 86 (46.2%), social distancing by 64 (34.4%), and contact Rapamycin in vitro avoidance by 45 (24.2%). Seasonal influenza vaccination in the previous 12 months was reported by 138 (63.0%) respondents. Influenza A(H1N1) vaccinations were reported by 72 (38.7%) respondents. Respiratory illness during the Hajj and/or in the first 7 days post-Hajj was reported by 76 (41.3%) respondents (respiratory illness during Hajj = 32 (17.3%) respondents and post-Hajj =53 (29.0%) respondents). Among the 76 respondents who reported respiratory symptoms,
coughing was reported by 56 (73.7%), sneezing by 48 (63.2%), sore throat by 29 (38.2%), fever by 25 (31.1%), congestion by 16 (32.9%), breathing problems by 4 (5.3%), and “bronchitis” by 2 (2.6%). Of the 76 respondents who reported respiratory illness, 18 (23.7%) met criteria for self-reported influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as fever plus sore throat and/or coughing.11 Three protective behaviors were associated with reduced risk of respiratory illness: social distancing, hand hygiene, and contact avoidance (Table 2). When the number of protective practices was analyzed as a continuous variable, reduced risk of Caspase activity respiratory illness was associated with engaging in more protective behaviors during the
Hajj (F = 3.13,p = 0.03) (Figure 1). Engaging in more protective measures was associated with noticing influenza A(H1N1) health messages during the Hajj (F = 6.93,p = 0.01). Respiratory illness mild enough that the respondents did not need to see a doctor or nurse was reported by 47 (65.3%) respondents, 23 (31.9%) were ill enough to see a doctor or nurse, and 2 (2.8%) needed to be hospitalized. No protective behaviors during Hajj
were associated with less severe respiratory illness. Reduced severity of respiratory illness during Hajj was associated with fewer years lived in the United States (F = 4.72,p = 0.01). The mean duration of respiratory illness reported during Hajj was 7 days (range = 1–21d). Practicing contact avoidance during Hajj was associated with shorter duration of respiratory illness (F = 3.54,p = 0.06). Shorter duration of respiratory illness during Hajj was also DOCK10 associated with younger age (r2 = 0.361,p = 0.002), fewer health risks (F = 3.99,p = 0.02), and higher levels of perceived influenza A(H1N1) severity (F = 8.02,p < 0.001). A multivariable model contained two significant predictors of reduced duration of respiratory illness: practicing contact avoidance (β = −0.38,p = 0.01) and noticing influenza A(H1N1) health messages during Hajj (β = 0.25,p = 0.06). These factors also explained a significant proportion of variance in the duration of respiratory illness (r2 = 0.13,F6,45 = 2.29,p = 0.05). When the number of protective practices was analyzed as a continuous variable, engaging in more protective measures during Hajj was correlated with shorter duration of respiratory illness (r2 = −0.307,p = 0.02 ) (Figure 2).
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