CypA abundance is more than 5 fold, compared to non-malignant imm

CypA abundance is more than 5 fold, compared to non-malignant immortalized control cell lines [40]. There also exist reports that CypA may regulate metastasis [32, 33]. During development of solid tumors, ROS are continuously generated in tumor’s central hypoxic region. Hong et al. suggested that CypA has antioxidant effects through its PPIase activity [13]. It is consistent with the finding that CypA overexpression promotes mTOR inhibitor cancer cell proliferation and blocks apoptosis induced by hypoxia [36]. Choi et al. showed that overexpression of

CypA in cancer cells renders resistance to hypoxia- and cisplatin-induced cell death in a p53 independent manner [36]. There are several reports suggesting that inhibition of PPIase activity of CypA may generate potential chemotherapeutic effects. Yurchenko et al. has reported that cell surface expression of CD147, tumor cell-derived collagenase stimulatory check details factor, is regulated by CypA [41, 42]. Overexpressed CypA interacts with the proline-containing peptide in CD147′s transmembrane domain and stimulates human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation [43]. Zheng et al. also demonstrated in breast cancer cells that prolactin needs to bind CypA for cancer progression and tumor metastasis [44]. Han et al. showed that CsA and sanglifehrin A (SfA), two CypA

inhibitors, increase chemotherapeutic effect of cisplatin in glioblastoma multiforme [34]. Overexpression and known functional roles of CypA in various cancer types are summarized in Table

Erastin manufacturer 1. Table 1 Cyclophilin A in human cancers Cancer type Functions and implications of CypA in cancers Contributers Lung cancer The first identification of CypA overexpression in lung cancer Campa et al., Cancer Res. (2003)   Potential role of CypA in early neoplastic transformation and as a biomarker Howard et al., Lung Cancer (2004)   Regulation of cancer growth, angiogenesisa and apoptosis through CypA knockdown and overexpression Howard et al., Cancer Res. (2005)   Role of exogenous CypA in increased H446 cell growth through ERK1/2 pathway activation Yang et al., BBRC (2007) Pancreatic cancer Identification of CypA as a decreased factor by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine Cecconi et al., Eletrophoresis (2003)   Involvement of increased CypA in pancreatic carcinogenesis Shen et al., Cancer Res. almost (2004)   Effect on the gene expression of several key molecules including NRPs, VEGF, and VEGFRs Li et al., Am J Surg (2005)   Stimulation of cancer cell proliferation by increased CypA through CD 147 signaling Li et al., Cancer Res (2006)   Association of increased CypA with tumor invasion, metastasis, and resistance to therapy Mikuriya et al., Int J Oncol (2007) Hepatocellular carcinoma Regulation of cancer cell proliferation and increase of hepatocarcinoma formation by interaction of increased CypA with calcineurin Corton et al., Cancer Let (1998)   Identification as a useful HCC marker in tumor tissues Lim et al.

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