Inderjit and Bhowmik [27] reported sorption of benzoic acid

Inderjit and Bhowmik [27] reported sorption of benzoic acid selleckchem Pazopanib in soil which increased with its concentration, with a nonlinear adsorption isotherm. The authors reported sorption to be sufficiently strong to protect plants from phytotoxic effects of this compound and to be pH-dependent. Benzoic acid is reversibly adsorbed to soil particles by van der Waal or hydrogen bonding and can be released to soil solution due to decreasing strength of the soil solution or presence of competing ions [83]. Evans Jr. [84] reported decreasing degradation of phthalic acid with depth in forest soil. Shikimic acid was detected in mor layer extracts in concentrations of 12��M [37]. Shikimic acid (even in a large quantity) did not affect decomposition of citrate, malate, and oxalate in agricultural soils [85] and had a low effect on sorption of these acids.

Oburger et al. [85] reported the half-life for shikimic acid in different soils to be within a range from 0.6 to 8.6h. Caffeic acid inhibited growth of Frankia isolates [79], while gentisic, o-hydroxyphenylacetic, and vanillic acid were less inhibitory.2.2.1. Role of Cyclic and Aromatic Organic Acids in Availability of Heavy Metals Cyclic and aromatic organic acids affect availability of heavy metals in soils. Whereas salicylic acid decreased availability of Pb, the presence of phthalic or salicylic acid increased the capacity of exchangeable Al. In some of the tested soils, salicylic acid decreased the capacity due to its lower adsorption and its formation of soluble Al-salicylate complexes [69, 82].

The ability of aromatic acids to mobilize Al is lower compared to a range of aliphatic organic acids (citric, oxalic, malonic, malic, and tartaric) but was higher than in the cases of lactic or maleic acid [86, 87]. Mobilisation of Al by salicylic acid was decreased by increasing pH.Some aromatic acids, such as gallic acid, are efficient in extraction of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, and Ni) [70]. Weathering of minerals (e.g., labradorite ((Ca,Na)(Si,Al)4O8) or microcline (KAlSi3O8)) by formation of Al-organic complexes by salicylic acid was reported by Huang and Keller [78]. Salicylic and phthalic acid release Cu from chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and release Ca and P from apatite (Ca5(PO4)2.82(FeClOH)1.54) [88]. Salicylic and phthalic acid are less efficient in release of yttrium from phosphate minerals (apatite, monazite) than citrate; phthalate efficiency is comparable to oxalate [89].

3. Carbohydrates in SoilGlucose, galactosamine, fructose, rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, glucosamine, galactose, xylose, mannose, ribose, mannosamine, muramic, galacturonic, and glucuronic Carfilzomib acids have all been identified in soil [15, 28, 90�C96]. Tian et al. [60] reported ca. 30% of DOC in arable soils was formed by carbohydrates, representing 4�C7% of total organic carbon [97]. The annual flux of carbohydrates infiltrating mineral soil of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. stands was assessed by Guggenberger et al.

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