Stimulation at this site is typically delivered at low frequencies in contrast to the high frequency stimulation required for therapeutic benefit in the subthalamic nucleus. Therefore, we looked for and demonstrated evidence of low frequency synchronization of activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus of a patient with Parkinson’s disease that increased after treatment with dopamine and which might be mimicked by local deep brain stimulation at low frequency.”
“Purpose: We addressed the Quisinostat ic50 impact of stone density and size on the role of computerized tomography for diagnosing residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
Materials and Methods: We prospectively evaluated
check details 100 renal units that underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The study included 55 opaque and 45 lucent or faint stones. Patients were examined after the procedure by plain x-ray of the kidneys, ureters and bladder, linear tomography, ultrasound and spiral computerized tomography. Minute residual stones were defined as 1 or 2 caliceal stones less
than 5 mm, as measured by computerized tomography.
Results: Stone-free status was achieved in 38 renal units. Minute and significant residual stones were detected in 26 and 36 renal units, respectively. For faint and lucent stones sensitivity for overall stone detection was 100% for computerized tomography, 11.1% for plain x-ray, 22.2% for linear tomography and 22.2% for ultrasound (p < 0.05). Sensitivity for detecting significant residual stones was 100% for computerized tomography, 20% for plain x-ray, 33.3% for linear tomography and 20% for ultrasound (p < 0.05). For opaque stones sensitivity for overall stone detection was 100% for
computerized tomography, 62.9% for plain x-ray, 74.3% linear tomography and 48.6% for ultrasound (p < 0.05). Sensitivity for detecting significant residual stones was 100% for computerized tomography, 85.7% for plain x-ray (p not significant), 95.2% for linear tomography (p not significant) and 57.1% for ultrasound (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Computerized tomography provides the most sensitive tool for detecting residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Nevertheless, Selleckchem BAY 1895344 it should not be routinely performed in patients with opaque stones because it yields no statistically valuable increase in the diagnosis of significant residual stones compared with that of plain x-ray and linear tomography.”
“We studied Fos immunoreactivity within targets of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems at different stages of acquisition of heroin place conditioning. Fos was quantified in groups of rats after one or four exposures to 0.3-mg/kg heroin only, or to the conditioning compartment only, or to both heroin and the conditioning compartment, or to neither stimuli.
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