The chromatographic data processing was performed by the Agilent Chemstation Software (GC-MS Data Analysis from Agilent, Waldbronn, Germany) while detected compounds were identified firstly by matching with the mass spectrum library NIST 2008 (Gaithersburg, MD, USA) and additionally confirmed with retention time of standardized reference materials. All compounds used
for identification and quantification (calibration) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Sigma-Aldrich, Steinheim, Germany). Sampling procedure for human breath samples A cohort of 55 selleck chemicals llc individuals (32 non-smokers, 23 active-smokers) www.selleckchem.com/products/salubrinal.html was recruited for this study. Amongst smokers, 12 males were in the age range from 22 to 64 years and 11 females were in the age range from 21 to 65 years. The cohort of non-smokers this website comprised 12 males and 20 females in the age range from 22 to 87 years. All individuals gave informed consent to their participation. The volunteers completed a questionnaire describing their current smoking status (active smokers, non-smokers, ex-smokers) and the time elapsed since last smoking (if applicable). No special dietary regimes were applied. All volunteers recruited to this study were healthy, especially in respect to lung diseases caused by bacterial infections but also asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. The samples were collected at different times of the day
at least 2 hours after last meal and were processed within 6 hours after sampling. Volunteers were asked to rest for at least 5 minutes before sampling. The alveolar air samples were collected into Tedlar bags (SKC Inc, Eighty Four, PA) by means of an in-house produced breath sampler, allowing also the collection of ambient air (also in Tedlar bags). The device operated C1GALT1 in two different sampling modes based on the CO2-content. Digitally controlled electronic valves switched to sampling mode if (a) the absolute level of CO2 in the breath exceeded 3% or (b) the
relative level of CO2 in the breath was above 80% of the maximal CO2-level in previous exhalation. Two breath samples and respective indoor-air were collected in described above way from each subject. Before use, all bags were thoroughly cleaned to remove any residual contaminants by flushing with nitrogen 6.0 (purity of 99.9999%), heating at 85°C (while filled with N2) for more than 8 hours and subsequent secondary flushing. The study was approved by the local ethics committee of Innsbruck Medical University. Preparation of breath samples Tedlar® bags filled with breath samples were thermostated for few minutes in an incubator at 40°C (to prevent condensation) and connected by means of Teflon tubes to a multibed sorption tube. The sample flow rate of 20 ml/min was diluted with additional flow (40 ml/min) of dry nitrogen 6.0 (additionally purified with Carboxen 1000) in order to avoid excessive adsorption of water vapor.
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