The use of botulinum toxin has been preliminarily reported for cr

The use of botulinum toxin has been preliminarily reported for cricopharyngeal achalasia in children as a modality for diagnosis and management. This study describes the use of botulinum toxin as a definitive treatment for pediatric cricopharyngeal achalasia.

Methods: A

retrospective analysis was performed of three patients who were diagnosed with cricopharyngeal achalasia selleck kinase inhibitor and underwent botulinum toxin injections to the cricopharyngeus muscle. The charts were reviewed for etiology, botulinum toxin dosage delivered, length of follow-up, post-operative need for nasogastric tube placement, and swallow studies.

Results: A total of 7 botulinum toxin injections into the cricopharyngeus muscle were performed in three infants with primary cricopharyngeal achalasia between April 2006 and February 2011. Mean dosage was 23.4 units per session (range: 10-44 units), or 3.1 U/kg (range: 1.4-5.3 U/kg). Mean interval period between injections was 3.3 months (range: 2.7-4.0 months). Mean follow-up period was 22.1 months (range: 3.4-44.5 months). One patient required hospital readmission after injection for presumed SRT2104 in vitro aspiration but recovered without need for surgical intervention. No long-term complications were noted post-operatively. All patients

improved clinically and ultimately had their nasogastric feeding tubes removed.

Conclusions: Botulinum toxin appears to be a safe and effective option in the management of primary cricopharyngeal achalasia in children, and may prevent the need for myotomy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of aortic valve morphology and different surgical aortic valve repair techniques on long-term clinical outcomes.

METHODS: Between February 2003 and May 2010, 216 patients with aortic insufficiency underwent aortic valve repair in our institution. Ages ranged between 26 and 82 years (mean 53 15 years). Aortic valve dysfunctions, according to functional classification, were: type I in 55 patients (25.5%), type II in 126 (58.3%) and type III in 35 (16.2%). Sixty-six patients

(27.7%) had a bicuspid valve. Aortic valve repair click here techniques included sub-commissural plasty in 138 patients, plication in 84, free-edge reinforcement in 80, resection of raphe plus re-suturing in 40 and the chordae technique in 52. Concomitant surgical procedures were CABG in 22 (10%) patients, mitral valve repair in 12 (5.5%), aortic valve-sparing re-implantation in 78 (36%) and ascending aorta replacement in 69 (32%). Mean follow-up was 42 +/- 16 months and was 100% complete.

RESULTS: There were six early deaths (2.7%). Overall late survival was 91.5% (18 late deaths). There were 15 (6.9%) late cardiac-related deaths. NYHA functional class was <= II in all patients. At follow-up, 28 (14.5%) patients had recurrent aortic insufficiency >= grade II.

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