Carotenes concentration was 1576 mg L−1 These results are simila

Carotenes concentration was 1576 mg L−1. These results are similar to those found in studies performed by Silva et al. (2009) where Buriti oil was analysed, presenting 1517 mg L−1 of total tocols and β-tocopherol was the most important homologue. However, it was followed by α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol respectively, probably due to the different post-harvest treatments of the oil (Silva et al., 2009). Patawa oil presented only α-homologues in both detections: 38.20 and 40.63 mg L−1, VX-770 cell line by PDA and Fluorescence, respectively

of α-tocopherol and 35.17 and 32.84 mg L−1 of α-tocotrienol (Table 5). The α-tocopherol content obtained was similar to that found by Rodrigues et al. (2010), however they did not analyse tocotrienols. The same authors also found β- + γ-tocopherols (7.8 mg L−1) and δ-tocopherol (7.7 mg L−1) in very low concentrations that were not detected in the analyses of Patawa oil done in this work (Table 5). Total tocol content was 73.38 and 73.47 mg L−1, by PDA and Fluorescence, respectively. Carotenes was not detected in Patawa oil. In Patawa chromatogram (Fig. 1D) the interfering peak (retention time approximately 26 min) is higher

than peaks of the tocols. Comparing it with Buriti chromatogram it can be noted that interfering compound has a different retention time of all other analysed compounds, so it do not disturb the analysis. Tucuma oil presented all tocopherol homologues in both Androgen Receptor Antagonist detections. The most important was α-tocopherol (241.05 and 233.60 mg L−1, by PDA and Fluorescence, respectively), followed by γ-tocopherol (68.14 and 64.66 mg L−1), β-tocopherol (37.15 and 39.86 mg L−1) and δ-tocopherol (18.92 and 21.77 mg L−1). The oil also

presented δ-tocotrienol (24.56 and 24.86 mg L−1). Rodrigues et al. (2010) found only α-tocopherol and β- + δ-tocopherols. Total tocol content was 389.82 and 384.75 mg L−1, by PDA and Fluorescence, respectively. Carotenes content was 1934 mg L−1, a result in accordance with those found by Rodriguez-Amaya (1996). Note many that tucuma oil presents higher carotenes content than Buriti oil (Silva et al., 2009). Mean concentration values obtained by PDA and Fluorescence were compared using the Tukey test. There was no significant difference between mean values of each tocopherol/tocotrienol (0.95 confidence level) measured by both detectors. From that, it can be concluded that there is no interfering compound in samples that is detected with tocols and both detectors can be used to quantify tocopherols and tocotrienols in these oils. Although, it can be noted by Table 5 that fluorescence detector has in general lower values of SD, so its use may be preferred. The analytical procedure used by Rodrigues et al. (2010) required several sample preparation steps, including saponification. Besides being time consuming, the sequence of several preparation steps may increase uncertainty of the results. Despite the fact that the samples used in this work and those analysed by Rodrigues et al.

The average temperature during the storage period was approximate

The average temperature during the storage period was approximately 23 °C and relative humidity of 70%, with values ranging between 15.5 and 27.0 °C and 51% and 82%, respectively. The range in the values noted was as expected because the storage conditions were not controlled. The nonisothermal condition was used to simulate the conditions of the product during its manufacture, distribution, and storage in shops and supermarkets, and also

in the consumers’ homes (Zanoni et al., 2007). Due to the difficulty of analysing changes when the concentrations are very low, only the carotenoids with initial concentrations of at least 0.50 μg/g were analysed. Therefore, in the samples of C. moschata ‘Menina Brasileira’ pumpkin puree, concentrations of lutein, ζ-carotene, α-carotene, all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers were evaluated. In the samples of C. PF-02341066 cell line maxima ‘Exposição’

pumpkin puree, the concentrations of lutein, all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers were evaluated. Interestingly, although α-carotene was not detected in C. maxima ‘Exposição’ pumpkin puree on day zero (initial), it was detected in some analyses of the puree samples during their storage, thus suggesting that this carotenoid can continue present in trace quantity (<0.10 μg/g) in puree of this pumpkin species. A decrease in the concentrations of lutein during storage was noted in both pumpkin purees. As aforementioned, xanthophylls tend to have lower stability in processing and storage because of their chemical structure. No significant alterations were noted in the concentrations of ζ-carotene, α-carotene, all-trans-β-carotene click here and its cis-isomers in the puree of C. moschata ‘Menina Brasileira’, and all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers in the aminophylline puree of C. maxima ‘Exposição’, throughout all the time of storage, showing the stability of these compounds in the conditions investigated. The stability of the major carotenoids in the pumpkin purees was expected because the factors that could affect the stability of these compounds were minimised through processing and storage conditions.

Heat processing is sufficient for the inactivation of enzymes and micro-organisms which could degrade these compounds. Moreover, there is a partial vacuum situation inside the bottle because oxygen is removed from it and that is important to reduce oxidation reactions. Storage at temperatures lower than 30 °C and protection from light are also important factors for the stability of carotenoids. Other published studies also detected similar results, with relative stability of carotenoids during food storage, especially pro-vitamin carotene, such as α-carotene and β-carotene, depending on the residual oxygen dissolved in the sample, the incidence of light, and the temperature during storage (Calvo and Santa-María, 2008 and Vásquez-Caicedo et al., 2007b).

Similar moisture values for Prato cheese were also reported by Ci

Similar moisture values for Prato cheese were also reported by Cichoscki et al. (2002) (41.91% with 7 days of storage). Traditional Prato cheese is classified as a high fat cheese for presenting 25–29% of fat. Fat content of cheeses from both processes were approximately 26% and were not significantly different (Table 1). Similar fat values for Prato cheese have also been reported by Spadoti, Dornellas, Petenate, and Roig (2003)

(25.2% with 10 days of storage) and by Cichoscki et al. (2002) (26% with 1 day of storage). Ash content for cheese were 4.60% when using coagulant from Thermomucor and 4.34% when using commercial coagulant being significantly higher than the first ( Table 1). These values are a little superior than the one reported by Cichoscki et al. (2002) of 3.68% with 1 day of storage. There was an increase of acidity for cheeses made with either coagulants during the 60 days of ripening, probably due to accumulation of selleck chemical lactose degradation products such as lactic acid and other volatile acids (Rao, Nand, Srikanta,

Krishna-Swamy, & Murthy, 1979). The acidity evolution profile was similar for both cheeses in spite of contents being significantly higher for the ones made selleck chemicals with coagulant from Thermomucor, except on the 15th day, where there is no difference between the two processes ( Table 1). Continuous acidity increase during ripening was also noted by El-Tanboly, El-Hofi, and Ismail (2000) for Gouda cheeses made with commercial coagulant (Ha-la) and with microbial coagulant (Mucor miehei NRRL 3169) and by Cichoscki et al. (2002) when studying 60 days of ripening of Prato cheese made with animal rennet. Decrease in pH values is related to lactose fermentation, as mentioned

above, which is important to prevent pathogenic bacterial growth. Besides, pH variation during ripening also depends Protein tyrosine phosphatase on the buffering capacity of the cheese, due to the amount of proteins and minerals present (Lawrence, Heap, & Gilles, 1984), to the formation of ammonium and/or catabolism of lactic acid (Fox, 1989). For the development of texture, taste and aroma characteristics of ripened cheeses, such as Prato cheese, a balanced degradation of proteins into peptides and aminoacids is necessary (Singh, Drake, & Cadwallader, 2003) and the detection and quantification of these degradation products are used as parameters to express the ripening index of cheeses (McSweeney & Fox, 1997). Therefore we studied the formation of nitrogenous compounds during the ripening of Prato cheeses, through chemical analysis, to monitor and objectively evaluate cheese ripening when using protease from T. indicae-seudaticae N31 as coagulant. Fig. 1A shows the evolution of NS-pH 4.6/TN*100, which is represented by the presence of peptides with high/intermediate molecular mass which were produced by the action of residual coagulant, proteinases from the starter and plasmin on casein, known as primary proteolysis (Fox, 1989 and Singh et al.

, 1997) Spatial coordinates were extracted from each published s

, 1997). Spatial coordinates were extracted from each published study and converted to standardized World Geodetic System (WGS) global grid values for latitude and longitude. Where these data were not presented, methodological descriptions of experimental locations were used to derive equivalent WGS data. Experimental coordinates were integrated with globally modeled estimates of biological functioning for (1) living C density (Ruesch and Gibbs, 2008), (2) NPP (Imhoff and Bounoua, 2006), (3) soil C density (Matthews et al., 2000) and spatial delineations of biome extent (Olson et al., 2001), using ESRI ArcMap 9.3 (ESRI, 2008).

Our synthesis of experimental analyses of soil C responses to eCO2 was obtained using a standard meta-analytical technique, by calculating the log OTX015 nmr response ratio (RR) (Curtis, 1996) for mean values of organic or total soil C content (typically within a 0–30 cm sampling depth) between the eCO2 Inhibitor Library screening treatment (~ 700 ppm) x¯t and ambient “control” (~ 360–390 ppm) x¯c, where: RR=lnx¯t/x¯c=lnx¯t−lnx¯c In cases where other experimental factors existed (e.g. nitrogen addition or different soil types), soil C values took the collective mean of all CO2 treatment

and all ambient CO2 groups, regardless of other interacting factors. Because of a range of methodologies in soil assays for each of the studies assessed and a lack of common units, the log response ratio allowed different studies to be

validly compared (Curtis, 1996). In cases where soil C data from multiple years were published from a single experiment, the latest published values were used, which were typically towards the end of experimentation. For primary productivity, we used a similar approach, taking the latest published mean experimental values for common and related metrics of above ground plant growth, including total biomass, extracted from 41 experiments. Where results for multiple species were presented in one experiment, a log response ratio was individually calculated using data from each species, and a mean value taken from the log response ratio for all species. Our analysis of experimental triclocarban soil C used values for organic or total soil C content from each experiment, where available. Analyses of soil C were conducted in only 24 out of 151 total eCO2 experiments (16%). Total CO2 emission levels per country for 2004 were obtained from the UN Millennium Development Goals Inventory database for CO2 emissions (CDIAC, 2012). These were compared with the total number of eCO2 “project years” per country, which was defined as the sum experimental duration of all individual eCO2 projects (between 1987 and 2011), according to each country. Our synthesis shows that eCO2 experiments are highly concentrated around North American and European ecosystems (Fig.

Again, this interaction was not significantly modulated by interr

Again, this interaction was not significantly modulated by interruption-task demands, F(1, 38) = .04. Also the Task × Interruption interaction was not significantly modulated by whether the previous interruption episode was short or long, F(1, 38) = .18, and there were no other significant effects associated with the length of the interruption. As in the previous experiment, there was a tendency for the cost asymmetry to decline between the first half (142 ms) and the second half of the block (98 ms), F(1, 38) = 3.52, MSE = 3037.54,

click here p > .06. However, the cost asymmetry was highly reliable for both block halves, Fs(1, 38)>24.15. For the high-demand condition, the pattern of errors was consistent with previous experiments in that it was not reliably affected by the experimental factors; in particular

there was no trace of a cost asymmetry, F(1, 19) = .01. However, in the low-demand condition, the cost-asymmetry pattern was opposite to that obtained on the level of RTs and the relevant Task × Interruption interaction as reliably modulated by the condition factor, F(1, 38) = 6.42, MSE = 13.10, p < .02. In principle, this pattern could point to a speed-accuracy tradeoff. However, the size of the “reverse” error cost-asymmetry effect showed a zero correlation with the RT cost-asymmetry effect in either of the two between-subject conditions (low demand: r = –.01; high demand: r = –.01). Also, when repeating the RT analyses for the low-demand group after eliminating Rigosertib clinical trial those subjects with an above-median reverse cost-asymmetry effect, there was still a highly reliable cost asymmetry, F(1, 38) = 3.52, MSE = 2557.40, p < .01. Thus, while the unique pattern of error effects was certainly not predicted the for the low-demand condition, there is no reason to assume that it qualifies the pattern of RT results. 5 Therefore, the main result of this experiment was that neither the level of control demands during the interruption nor the length of the interruption influenced the pattern

of post-interruption costs in a theoretically significant manner. So far, as our primary task pair we had juxtaposed endogenous vs. exogenous control over spatial attention. In this final experiment we wanted to examine to what degree the basic pattern of results generalizes to a paradigm where conflict is generated during response selection, rather than during attentional-input selection. To this end, we replaced the endogenous vs. exogenous spatial attention tasks with a spatial Stroop task. Participants in the experimental group switched back and forth between blocks that either required a response to a word (UP, DOWN, LEFT, or RIGHT) presented in one of four locations, or execute a spatially compatible response to the location of the word.

We addressed the following questions: (i) How well do native tree

We addressed the following questions: (i) How well do native tree species regenerate on clearfelled upland conifer plantations? (ii) How does regeneration on clearfelled conifer plantations compare to regeneration on improved farmland and open moorland? (iii) What are the dominant factors controlling regeneration? (iv) How does the ground flora develop in the years following clearfelling and how does this impact tree regeneration? We surveyed a total of selleck kinase inhibitor 21 sites at 4 different upland locations: Hardknott forest and Rainsbarrow wood in the Lake District,

north-west England and Clashindarroch forest and Bin forest in Aberdeenshire, north-east Scotland. All forests surveyed were managed by the Forestry Commission. The soil type, obtained from Forestry Commission soil maps, was used to predict the natural woodland community that would be expected to develop (Rodwell find more and Patterson, 1994). Details of the sites selected are given in Table

1 and locations are shown in Fig. 1. Hardknott forest was planted on upland moorland between 1940 and 1955 (N. Williams 2008, Forestry Commission, personal communication). There are several broadleaf woodland fragments of Quercus spp. (oak spp.), Betula spp. (birch), Sorbus aucuparia (rowan), Ilex aquifolium (holly) and Salix spp. (willow). Nearby Rainsbarrow woodland was planted with conifers between 1959 and 1962 and is designated as a Planted Ancient Woodland Site (PAWS) ( Thompson et al., 2003). PAWS are sites with a long history of forest cover, with the original semi-natural woodland cleared and replaced by a plantation, a practice that was widespread in the UK before around 1980 ( Thompson et al., 2003). Clashindarroch forest was established from 1930 onwards ( Forestry Commission, 1964). Prior to afforestation, the Progesterone land was mostly upland moorland with a dense flora of Calluna vulgaris (ling heather) and Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) with limited areas of Pteridium aquilinium (bracken) on the lower elevations ( Forestry Commission, 1952). Bin forest was established from 1926

onwards when most of the land was upland moorland with dense ling heather vegetation ( Forestry Commission, 1964). Both Clashindarroch and Bin forests retained small fragments of semi-natural woodland consisting largely of birch and rowan as well as Alnus glutinosa (common alder) and willow on the wetter ground. At these 4 locations we surveyed 15 sites that had been afforested with conifers, clearfelled and then left to regenerate naturally. Table 1 details the species of the felled conifer crop, which was generally dominated by Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce), matching the dominant conifer species used across Britain ( Forestry Commission, 2012). The harvesting residues, known as brash, were typically windrowed – that is, gathered into regularly spaced linear mounds known as brash mats or windrows.


treatment was performed on the eluted RNA to avoid


treatment was performed on the eluted RNA to avoid residual DNA contamination. Eight hundred nanograms of the eluted RNA was subjected to reverse transcription by a commercial kit (Superscript™ III; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), following the manufacture’s instructions, and then subjected to PCR amplification using the primers pairs for UL54 and UL13 as described Kleymann et al. (2002) and Tal-Singer et al. (1997) and for UL52 and ACTB (β-actin) as described by Su et al. (2008). The PCR reaction was carried out in a final volume of 25 μl containing 20 mM Tris–HCl (pH 8.5), 50 mM KCl, 1.5 mM NLG919 ic50 MgCl2, 0.2 mM of each deoxynucleoside triphosphate, 0.2 μM of each specific primer, 2.5 U of GoTaq DNA polymerase (Promega, Madison, WI, USA), and genomic DNA or cDNA. The PCR program for UL52, UL13 and UL54 and ACTB consists of denaturation at 94 °C for 5 min and 30 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 40 s, annealing at 55 °C for 40 s, and polymerization at 72 °C for 40 s,

followed by a final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. The expected sizes for UL54, UL13, UL52 and ACTB are 283, 600, 259 and 314 bp, respectively. Five-microliter aliquots of the PCR products were resolved on a 1.5% agarose gel. Vero cell monolayers were infected with HSV-1 at MOI 0.2 for 1 h. Next, residual viruses were removed with PBS and cells received different treatments for 18 h. Then, cells were trypsinized and see more lysed with lysis buffer [0.125 M Tris–HCl (pH 7.4), 30% glycerol, 100 μg/ml phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 5% β-mercaptoethanol]. Cell lysates were clarified by centrifugation, and proteins were denatured by boiling, and equivalent amounts of protein (5 μg) were separated on 12% SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). The proteins were transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) and blocked with 5% non-fat milk in blotting buffer [25 mM Tris–HCl

(pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20]. All membrane washing steps were performed using this blotting buffer. The membranes were incubated for 90 min with the following primary antibodies: Methane monooxygenase goat monoclonal antibody against ICP27 protein (1:700 dilution) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA); mouse monoclonal antibody against UL42 protein (1:5000 dilution) (Millipore); mouse monoclonal antibody against gD (1:5000 dilution) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), mouse monoclonal antibody against gB (1:5000 dilution) (Millipore); rabbit monoclonal antibody against β-actin (1:5000 dilution) (Millipore). After washing, the membranes were incubated with the respective secondary antibodies for 1 h. The immunoblots were developed and detected using the Pierce ECL Western Blotting Substrate (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL, USA), according to the manufacture’s instructions.

The research performed in the last years has provided

a b

The research performed in the last years has provided

a better understanding on the mechanisms of antitumor efficacy of ANPs. Although comparative studies between CDV and ANPs of the PME series (such as PMEG) are missing, their action on cellular DNA polymerization appeared to be different, PMEG having a higher affinity for cellular DNA polymerases than CDV. An important difference between both drugs is the ability of PMEG to cause chain termination of viral DNA synthesis in contrast to CDV that can be incorporated. Although both PMEG and CDV can cause DNA damage, they may differ in the type of damage induced. In the case of CDV, it appeared that the drug is able to induce double-stranded DNA damage and that only normal cells are capable of activating a DNA damage response and repair the damage via homologous recombination (considered as a very faithful mechanism of DNA repair). On the other hand, it appears that CDV is able to trigger several signalling pathways in tumor cells, both HPV-positive and HPV-negative cells, such as Rho GTPase signalling and acute phase response that may also contribute to its antitumor efficacy and selectivity. There is an unmet need for effective anti-HPV treatments for existing infections and for patients that do not receive the prophylactic

vaccination. Also, no FDA-approved treatments exist to manage human PyV infections. The use of cidofovir derivatives such as CMX001 (with substantially improved oral bioavailability and DZNeP reduced toxicity

compared to CDV) and HPMP-5-azaC (with in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative effects equivalent as those described for CDV) deserve further evaluation. Also, the use of formulations of CDV should be envisaged in order to use lower drug levels and enhance efficacy. A recent study has shown that formulation of CDV improved the anti-papillomavirus activity of topical CDV treatments in the CRPV/rabbit model ( Christensen et al., 2014). Importantly, CDV was suggested to affect the LT-ag of PyV, indicating that the helicase activity associated with the LT-ag may be the target of CDV. Although there is no overall homology among the PyV and PV genomes, the helicase motif of PV E1 protein, Tideglusib a domain stretching about 230 amino acids, has some sequence similarity with the SV40 LT-ag (de Villiers et al., 2004). Furthermore, a comparison of the active s ite from SV40 LT-ag and HPV E1 proteins shows high similarities (Fig. 14A and B). The lysine finger is conserved in the LT-ag and the HPV E1 proteins and, in addition, a number of aspartates, asparagines and threonines are conserved in the active site of both types of proteins. Structural similarities between the LT-ag and the BPV E1 protein have also been described (Topalis et al., 2013).

Here, participants were shown each stimulus in turn and asked to

Here, participants were shown each stimulus in turn and asked to explicitly write down their estimate of the probability of winning (as a percentage of trials) for the stimulus independent of its pairing.

In the observer session, participants were paid based on the (hidden) outcomes of 10 choices from the test trials. In their actor session, earnings were based on the chosen outcomes of five test and five learning trials. This matched the overall financial incentives across each learning session overall. Full payment was given after the second session, but participants were informed that the earnings of each session were independent. Practices Quizartinib research buy for both actor and observer sessions were given at the beginning of the first session. We measured choice accuracy for each pair, over the nine test blocks, as the proportion of times

that that option with the highest pwin of each pair was chosen. Analysis was restricted to test blocks where both actors and observers made measurable free choices. We used a 2 × 4 × 9 within-subject design with factors for learning session (A/O), gamble pair (80/20, 80/60, 60/40, 40/20) and test block (1–9). To eliminate differences in individual learning ability, we measured within-subject changes in choice accuracy between the two sessions. Analyses were two-tailed to test U0126 for both increases and decreases in learning against the null hypothesis of no significant change between the two learning sessions. Reaction times (RTs) were analyzed using a 2 × 2 × 9 ANOVA with factors comprising learning session (A/O), size of probability Thiamet G discrepancy (80/20 versus 80/60, 60/40 and 40/20) and test block (1–9). We predicted an effect of probability discrepancy on RT, since 80/20 pairs were considered to allow for easier value discrimination than 80/60, 60/40 and 40/20 pairs. We also tested for an effect of session on explicit estimates of pwin for each stimulus, using a 2 × 4 ANOVA with factors for learning session (A/O) and stimulus (80, 60, 40, 20). A repeated-measures ANOVA showed a main effect of the gamble pair on accuracy (F[3, 45] = 7.41, p < 0.001,

η2 = 0.33), an effect that also interacted significantly with session (F[3, 45] = 3.76, p < 0.02, η2 = 0.20). Post-hoc paired t-tests showed this interaction was driven by a difference in actor and observer accuracy for the 40/20 pair alone, such that observers were significantly less accurate for these decisions (t[15] = 3.0, p < 0.01) ( Fig. 2a).We also found a quadratic effect of gamble pair in the case of actors (F[1, 15] = 13.05, p < 0.005, η2 = 0.47), which was not present for observers (gamble pair × session, F[1, 15] = 5.86, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.28). This may reflect decreased uncertainty, and therefore higher accuracy, when choices involve the highest and lowest probabilities, similar to a payoff variability effect (see review by Erev and Barron (2005)).

To mitigate further infilling of sediment, and to scour the eleva

To mitigate further infilling of sediment, and to scour the elevated river-bed, the Yellow River Conservancy Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources has performed WSM annually through the Xiaolangdi Dam since 2002 (Fig. 5). WSM releases the stored water in the Xiaolangdi reservoir to carry trapped sediment to the lower reaches. This process also scours the elevated riverbed. The WSM typically uses artificial Dinaciclib in vitro hyperpycnal flow to facilitate sediment

removal from the Xiaolangdi reservoir. WSM often transfers substantial amounts of water and sediment between large reservoirs in both the main river stem and its tributaries. Table 5 lists key information about WSM regimes during 2002–2011. Although executed typically once a year, WSM was performed twice in 2007 and three times in 2010. Moreover, WSM can be performed either before

or during the flood season, with durations of 8–24 days. The volume of scoured sediment varies greatly AZD6738 concentration in response to different releasing practices. And the suspended sediment concentration is controlled lower than 40 kg/m3. Information about the WSM regime during 2002–2013. The volume of water released from the Xiaolangdi dam through WSM ranges from 18.1 × 108 m3 to 57 × 108 m3. This volume often necessitates water transfers from other reservoirs such as Sanmenxia and some tributary reservoirs. Satellite images show an example of water

and sediment transfers from the Sanmenxia dam to the Xiaolangdi dam during operation selleck chemicals of the WSM in 2009 (Fig. 6). During the WSM period, large amounts of water are released from the Xiaolangdi dam at a high velocity (2400–4270 m3/s). The released floodwaters scour the sandy riverbed in the lower reaches, making the water more turbid. Turbid water flowing in the lower Huanghe during WSM is also shown in the satellite-derived images (Fig. 7). As shown in Table 5, an average of 4.04 × 106 tons of sediment can be delivered to the sea every day over a short period when WSM is in operation. This high sediment input leads to abrupt increases in the extent of the sediment plume at the Huanghe river mouth, as shown in Fig. 8. The two images on the right in Fig. 8 depict the sharp increases in the extent of the sediment plume during WSM in 2009 and 2012. These increases contrast with the minor plume before WSM, when low runoff was discharged into the sea. Since 2008, part of the WSM water has been diverted to the delta’s wetlands, which have been degrading due to depletion of freshwater nutrient. As shown in Fig. 8, the dried wetlands near the river mouth were irrigated by the freshwater diverted from the stream-flow during WSM.