The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of

The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of self-reported depression and associated help-seeking among a sample of regular ecstasy users. A further aim was to examine the correlates of depressive symptomatology in this population. Materials and Methods: 100

regular ecstasy consumers (at least monthly use) were interviewed as part of the Ecstasy and Related Drug Reporting System in Tasmania, Australia. Participants were also administered epidemiological measures of depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale). Results: One quarter (23%) of participants self-reported recent experience of depression, a rate notably greater than the general click here population. However, only one third of these participants had attended a health professional Acalabrutinib purchase for this issue. A range of drug use factors (e. g. frequency and quantity of ecstasy use, frequent cannabis or methamphetamine use, intravenous drug use, polydrug use, binge drug use, harmful alcohol use, and elevated psychological dependence scores for ecstasy and methamphetamine) were associated with high levels of depressive symptomatology. Conclusion:

These findings are consistent with an association between depressive symptomatology and ecstasy and other drug use. Harm reduction strategies which target drug use factors such as those identified in this study may also aid in the reduction of the experience of depression. Considering the low levels of help-seeking among this population, improving awareness and access to information and treatment for depression may also be important. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A novel flavivirus was isolated from mosquitoes in Finland, representing the first mosquito-borne flavivirus from Northern Europe. The isolate, designated Lammi virus (LAMV), was antigenically cross-reactive with other flaviviruses and exhibited typical flavivirus morphology as determined by electron microscopy. The genomic sequence of LAMV was highly divergent from the recognized flaviviruses, and yet the polyprotein properties resembled those of mosquito-borne flaviviruses.

Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence showed that LAMV represented a Selleck JQ-EZ-05 distinct lineage related to the Aedes sp.-transmitted human pathogenic flaviviruses, similarly to the newly described Nounane virus (NOUV), a flavivirus from Africa (S. Junglen et al., J. Virol. 83: 4462-4468, 2009). Despite the low sequence homology, LAMV and NOUV were phylogenetically grouped closely, likely representing separate species of a novel group of flaviviruses. Despite the biological properties preferring replication in mosquito cells, the genetic relatedness of LAMV to viruses associated with vertebrate hosts warrants a search for disease associations.”
“The paper reviews convergent evidence on the ability to attribute mental states to one’s self and to others (i.e.

Taken together, these findings demonstrated the constant sensing

Taken together, these findings demonstrated the constant sensing of the latent KSHV genome by IFI16-mediated innate defense and unraveled a potential mechanism of inflammation induction associated with KS and PEL lesions.”
“The role of good nutrition for resilience in selleck chemicals llc the face of stress is a topic of interest, but difficult to study. A 7.1 earthquake took place in the midst of research on a micronutrient treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity

Disorder (ADHD), providing a unique opportunity to examine whether individuals with ADHD taking micronutrients demonstrated more emotional resilience post-earthquake than individuals with ADHD not taking micronutrients. Thirty-three adults with ADHD were assessed JIB04 mw twice following the earthquake using a measure of depression, anxiety and stress also completed at some point pre-earthquake (baseline). Seventeen were not taking micronutrients at the time of the earthquake (control group), 16 were (micronutrient group). While there were no between-group differences one week post-quake (Time 1), at two weeks post-quake (Time 2), the micronutrient group reported significantly less anxiety and stress than the controls (effect size 0.69). These between group differences could not be explained by other variables, such as pre-earthquake measures of emotions, demographics, psychiatric status, and personal loss or damage following the earthquake. The results suggest

that micronutrients may increase resilience to ongoing stress and anxiety associated with a highly stressful event in individuals with find more ADHD and are consistent with controlled studies showing benefit of micronutrients for mental health. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To begin to investigate the mechanism by which the human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55-kDa protein protects against the antiviral effects of type 1 interferon (IFN) (J.S. Chahal, J.Qi, and S.J. Flint, PLoS Pathog. 8:e1002853, 2012 [doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002853]), we examined the effects of precise amino acid

substitution in this protein on resistance of viral replication to the cytokine. Only substitution of residues 443 to 448 of E1B for alanine (E1B Sub19) specifically impaired production of progeny virus and resulted in a large defect in viral DNA synthesis in IFN-treated normal human fibroblasts. Untreated or IFN-treated cells infected by this mutant virus (AdEasyE1Sub19) contained much higher steady-state concentrations of IFN-inducible GBP1 and IFIT2 mRNAs than did wild-type-infected cells and of the corresponding newly transcribed pre-mRNAs, isolated exploiting 5′-ethynyluridine labeling and click chemistry. These results indicated that the mutations created by substitution of residues 443 to 448 for alanine (Sub19) impair repression of transcription of IFN-inducible genes, by the E1B, 55-kDa protein, consistent with their location in a segment required for repression of p53-dependent transcription.

Here we used patch-clamp

Here we used patch-clamp buy AG-120 technique in a whole-cell configuration to compare functional activity of 3′-fluoroepibatidine to that of epibatidine by itself on recombinant alpha 4 beta 2, alpha 7 and alpha 3 beta 4 neuronal nAChRs. The agonist effect of (+/-)-epibatidine

was partial and yielded comparable EC(50)s of 0.012 mu M (72% efficacy) and 0.027 mu M (81% efficacy) at alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs, respectively, but was full at alpha 7 nAChRs with an EC(50) of 4.8 mu M. Testing of the analog at different concentrations revealed that it acts as a full agonist with an EC(50) of 0.36 mu M at alpha 4 beta 2 nAChRs and induces partial agonist effect (66% efficacy) at alpha 7 nAChRs with an EC(50) of 9.8 mu M and an IC(50) corresponding to 225 mu M. In contrast, the analog caused only 24% maximal activation at the range of concentrations from 0.1 to 100 mu M and, in addition, induced ail inhibition of alpha 3 beta 4 nAChR function with an IC(50) of 8.3 mu M. Our functional data, which are in agreement with previous binding and behavioral findings, demonstrate that 3′-fluoro Substitution Selleck SC75741 in the pyridine ring of epibatidine results in an improved pharmacological profile as observed by an increased efficacy and selectivity for alpha 4 beta 2 versus alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

The initial palliative procedure for patients born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related single right ventricle anomalies, the Norwood procedure, remains among the highest risk procedures in congenital heart surgery. The classic Norwood procedure provides pulmonary blood flow with a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Improved outcomes have been reported in a few small, nonrandomized studies of a modification of the Norwood procedure that uses a right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt to provide pulmonary blood flow. Other nonrandomized studies have shown no differences between the two


Methods: The Pediatric Heart Network designed a randomized clinical trial to compare outcomes for subjects undergoing a Norwood procedure with either the right ventricle -pulmonary artery or modified Blalock-Taussig Pitavastatin mouse shunt. Infants with a diagnosis of single, morphologically right ventricle anomaly who are undergoing a Norwood procedure are eligible for inclusion in this study. The primary outcome is death or cardiac transplant 12 months after random assignment. Secondary outcomes include postoperative morbidity after Norwood and stage II palliation procedures, right ventricular function and pulmonary arterial growth at stage II palliation, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 14 months old. Incidence of adverse events will also be compared between treatment groups.

Conclusion: This study will make an important contribution to the care of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related forms of single, morphologically right ventricle.

(c) 2009 IBRO Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(c) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The pathogenic subgroup C feline leukemia virus (FeLV-C) arises in infected cats as a result of mutations in the envelope (Env) of the subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A). To better understand emergence of FeLV-C and potential FeLV intermediates that may arise, we characterized FeLV Env sequences PLK inhibitor from the primary FY981 FeLV isolate previously derived from an anemic cat. Here, we report the characterization of the novel FY981 FeLV Env that is highly related to FeLV-A Env but whose variable region A (VRA) receptor recognition sequence partially resembles the VRA sequence from the prototypical FeLV-C/Sarma Env. Pseudotype viruses bearing FY981

Env were capable of infecting feline, human, and guinea pig cells, suggestive of a subgroup C phenotype, but also infected porcine ST-IOWA cells that are normally resistant to FeLV-C and to FeLV-A. Analysis of the host receptor used by FY981 suggests that FY981 can use both the FeLV-C receptor FLVCR1 and the feline FeLV-A receptor THTR1 for infection. However, our results suggest that FY981 infection of ST-IOWA cells is not mediated by the porcine homologue of FLVCR1 and THTR1 but by

an alternative receptor, which we have now identified as the FLVCR1-related protein FLVCR2. Together, our results suggest that selleck FY981 FeLV uses FLVCR1, FLVCR2, and THTR1 as receptors. Our findings suggest the possibility that pathogenic FeLV-C arises

in FeLV-infected cats through intermediates that are multitropic in their receptor use.”
“Recent literature indicates that low-dose Methylene Blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone (Rot) in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion volumes were performed and changes in oxidative energy metabolism in the striatum and related motor regions were mapped using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. The influence of MB on striatal levels of oxidative stress induced by Rot was determined, C188-9 and behavioral tests were used to investigate the effect of unilateral MB coadministration on motor asymmetry. Rot induced large anatomical lesions resembling “”metabolic strokes,”" whose size was greatly reduced in MB-treated rats. Moreover, MB prevented the decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity and the perilesional increase in oxidative stress associated with Rot infusion in the striaturn. MB also prevented the indirect effects of the Rot-induced lesion on cytochrome oxidase activity in related motor regions, such as the striatal regions rostral and caudal to the lesion, the substantia nigra compacta and reticulata, and the pedunculopontine nucleus.

To investigate vagal modulation, we analyzed the coupling between

To investigate vagal modulation, we analyzed the coupling between heart rate and breathing as a putative measure of central autonomic function in 19 patients, 19 of their relatives and 19 matched control subjects. The interaction of heart rate and breathing was investigated in all groups applying the non-linear parameter cross-ApEn, indicating the asynchrony between both time series. In addition,

measures of the time and frequency domain of heart rate variability (HRV) were obtained.

The main finding of our study is a significantly increased cross-ApEn value, indicating reduced central vagal modulation both in relatives and patients suffering from schizophrenia. Non-linear measures of HRV proved to more

sensitively BTSA1 manufacturer differentiate relatives from control subjects. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between psychopathology and breathing, indicating that positive symptoms are associated with Selleck VE-821 a higher degree of regularity in the breathing pattern.

Our results suggest that autonomic dysfunction previously described for patients suffering from schizophrenia is also present in first-degree relatives. This might relate to changes of brainstem activity in patients and relatives, and a common genetic background in patients and their family members can be assumed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Both sleep spindles and slow oscillations have been implicated in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Whereas spindles occur during both light and deep sleep, slow oscillations are restricted to deep sleep, raising the possibility of greater consolidation-related spindle involvement during deep sleep. We assessed declarative memory retention over an interval containing a nap and determined spindle density for light and deep sleep separately. In deep sleep, spindle density was considerably higher and showed a strong and robust positive correlation with retention. This relation was absent for light sleep,

suggesting that the potentiating Rapamycin nmr effects of spindles are tied to their co-occurrence with slow oscillations.”
“While blood vessels have long been implicated in diverse pain syndromes (e.g., migraine headache, angina pectoris, vasculitis, and Raynaud’s syndrome), underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent evidence supports a contribution of the vascular endothelium in endothelin-1-induced hyperalgesia, and its enhancement by repeated mechanical stimulation; a phenomenon referred to as stimulus-induced enhancement of (endothelin) hyperalgesia (SIEH). SIEH is thought to be mediated by release of ATP from endothelial cells, to act on P2X3 receptors on nociceptors. In the present study we evaluated the ability of another vasoactive hyperalgesic agent, epinephrine, to induce endothelial cell-dependent hyperalgesia and SIEH.

In a numerical model of search efficiency (i e RT slope), bilate

In a numerical model of search efficiency (i.e. RT slope), bilateral advantage was parameterised by an interhemispheric ‘transfer factor’ (T) that governs the strength of the ipsilateral representation of distractors, and modifies the level of intrahemispheric competition with the target. The factor T was found to be

higher in superior field than inferior field; this result held for the modelled data of each individual subject, as well as the group, representing a uniform tendency for the bilateral advantage to be more prominent in inferior field. In fact statistical analysis and modelling of search efficiency showed that the geometrical display factors (target polar and quadrantic location, and associated crowding effects) LY2109761 mw were all remarkably consistent across subjects. Greater variability was inferred within a fixed, decisional component of response time, with individual subjects capable of opposite hemifield biases.

The results are interpretable by a guided search model of spatial attention – a first, parallel stage guiding selection by a second, serial OSI-744 research buy stage – with the proviso that the first stage is relatively insular within each hemisphere. The bilateral advantage in search efficiency can then be attributed to a relative gain in target weight within the

initial parallel stage, owing to a learn more reduction in distractor competition mediated specifically by intrahemispheric circuitry. In the absence of a target there is no effective guidance, and hence no basis for a bilateral advantage to enhance search efficiency; the equivalence of scanning speed for the two display modes (bilateral and unilateral) implies a unitary second-stage process mediated via efficient interhemispheric integration. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: In previous studies we and others have shown that streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats is associated with vascular oxidative stress and dysfunction.

In the present study, we sought to determine whether vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress strictly depend on insulin deficiency. Methods: The effects of insulin (2.5 U/day s.c., 2 weeks) therapy on vascular disorders in STZ-induced (60 mg/kg i.v., 8 weeks) diabetes mellitus (type I) were studied in Wistar rats. The contribution of NADPH oxidase to overall oxidative stress was investigated by in vivo (30 mg/kg/day s.c., 4 days) and in vitro treatment with apocynin. Results: Insulin therapy completely normalized blood glucose, body weight, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress as well as increased cardiac reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation in diabetic rats, although diabetes was already established for 6 weeks before insulin therapy was started for the last 2 weeks of the total treatment interval.

The majority of patients performed home nocturnal hemodialysis in

The majority of patients performed home nocturnal hemodialysis in this 2-year retrospective study. All training periods, both in-center and in-home dialysis, medications, hospitalizations, and deaths were captured using our provincial renal database and vital statistics. Comparative data from the provincial database and pricing models were used for costing purposes. The total comprehensive costs per patient-incorporating startup, home, and in-center dialysis; medications; home remodeling; and consumables-was $59,179 for years 2004-2005 and $48,648 for 2005-2006. The home dialysis patients required multiple in-center dialysis runs, significantly contributing

to the overall costs. Our study describes a valid, comprehensive funding model selleck chemical delineating reliable cost estimates of starting and maintaining a large home-based hemodialysis program. Consideration of hidden costs is important for administrators and planners to take into account when designing budgets for home hemodialysis. Kidney International (2010) 77, 1039-1045; doi:10.1038/ki.2010.37; published online 10 March SB431542 chemical structure 2010″
“Dopamine (DA) neurons

in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been implicated in brain mechanisms related to motivation, reward, and drug addiction. Successful identification of these neurons in vitro has historically depended upon the expression of a hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) and immunohistochemical demonstration of the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), find more the rate-limiting enzyme for DA synthesis. Recent findings suggest that electrophysiological criteria may be insufficient for distinguishing DA neurons from non-DA neurons in the VTA. In this study, we sought to determine factors that could potentially account for the apparent discrepancies in the literature regarding DA neuron identification in the rodent brain slice preparation. We found that confirmed DA neurons from the lateral VTA generally

displayed a larger amplitude I(h) relative to DA neurons located in the medial VTA. Measurement of a large amplitude I(h) (>100 pA) consistently indicated a dopaminergic phenotype, but non-dopamine neurons also can have I(h) current. The data also showed that immunohistochemical TH labeling of DA neurons can render false negative results after relatively long duration (>15 min) whole-cell patch clamp recordings. We conclude that whole-cell patch clamp recording in combination with immunohistochemical detection of TH expression can guarantee positive but not negative DA identification in the VTA. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Evidence is mounting that a multi-gene kinase network is central to the regulation of renal Na(+) and K(+) excretion and that aberrant signaling through the pathway can result in renal sodium retention and hypertension (HTN).

Taken together, the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of prena

Taken together, the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of prenatal and perinatal hypoxia may depend on perturbation of developmental signals that affect neuronal migration. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The study of animal growth is a longstanding crucial Tariquidar research buy topic of theoretical biology. In this paper we introduce a new class of stochastic growth models that enjoy two crucial properties: the growth path of an individual is monotonically increasing and the mean length at time t follows the classic von Bertalanffy model. Besides

the theoretical development, the models are also tested against a large set of length-at-age data collected on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus): the mean lengths and variances of the cohorts were directly estimated by least squares. The results show

that the use of subordinators can lead to models enjoying interesting properties, in particular able to catch some specific features often observed in fish growth data. The use of subordinators seems to allow for an increased fidelity in the description of fish growth, whilst still conforming to the general parameters of the traditional von Bertalanffy equation. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated the effects of salvinorin A on the basal and the 12 mM K(+)-evoked release of preloaded [(3)H]noradenaline ([(3)H]NA) and [(3)H]serotonin ([(3)H]5-HT) from mouse hippocampal nerve Org 27569 terminals

(synaptosomes), as well as on the basal and 12 mM K(+)-evoked release of preloaded [(3)H]dopamine ([(3)H]DA) from mouse striatal and prefrontal cortex (PFc) synaptosomes. Salvinorin A (0.1-1000 nM) failed to affect the basal release of amines, but inhibited the 12 mM K(+)-evoked, Ca(2+)-dependent, exocytotic-like release of [(3)H]5-HT and [(3)H]DA. At the same concentration, sal(3)Hinorin A facilitated the 12 mM K(+)-evoked, Ca(2+)-dependent, exocytotic-like release of [(3)H]NA. These effects could not be observed in pertussis toxin (PTx) entrapped synaptosomes. The broad spectrum K-Opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI, 1-100 nM) antagonized the inhibition of [(3)H]5-HT and [(3)H]DA exocytosis as well as the facilitation of [(3)H]NA overflow induced by 100 nM salvinorin A. The KOR agonist U69593 (1-100 nM) mimicked salvinorin A in inhibiting [(3)H]5-HT and of [(3)H]DA exocytosis, its effect being prevented by norBNI, but leaving unchanged the K(+)-evoked release of [(3)H]NA. The effects of Salvinorin A on neurotransmitter exocytosis were not prevented by the selective mu opioid (MOR) receptor antagonist CTAP (10-100 nM), whereas facilitation of [(3)H]NA exocytosis, but not inhibition of [(3)H]5-HT and [(3)H]DA K(+)-evoked release, was counteracted by the delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist naltrindole (1-100 nM).

Duplex ultrasound (DU) criteria for SFA in-stent stenosis and cor

Duplex ultrasound (DU) criteria for SFA in-stent stenosis and correlation with

angiographic data remain poorly defined. This study evaluated SFA-specific DU criteria for the assessment of SFA in-stent stenosis.

Methods. From May 2003 to May 2008, 330 limbs underwent SFA angioplasty and stenting and were monitored by serial DU imaging. Suspected stenotic lesions underwent angiography and intervention when appropriate. Data pairs of DU and angiographically estimated stenosis <= 30 days of each other were analyzed. Seventy-eight limbs met these criteria, and 59 underwent reintervention. In-stent peak systolic velocity (PSV), the ratio of the stented SFA velocity/proximal SFA. velocity, changes in ankle-brachial indices (ABIs), and the percentage of angiographic stenosis were examined. MK-0518 ic50 Linear regression and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to compare angiographic stenosis with PSV and velocity ratios (Vrs) to establish optimal criteria for determining significant in-stent stenosis.

Results: Mean follow-up was 16.9 +/- 8.3 months. Of the 59 limbs that underwent reintervention, 37 (63%) were symptomatic, and 22 (37%) underwent reintervention based on DU findings alone.

JQ1 solubility dmso Linear regression models of PSV and Vr vs degree of angiographic stenosis showed strong adjusted correlation coefficients (R-2 = 0.60, P < .001 and R-2 = 0.55, P < 0.001, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed that to detect a >= 50% in-stent stenosis, a PSV >= 190 had 88% sensitivity, 95% specificity, a 98% positive predictive value (PPV), and a 72% negative predictive value (NPV); for Vr, a ratio of >1.50 had 93% sensitivity, 89% specificity, a 96% PPV, and a 81% NPV. To detect Eltanexor purchase >= 80% in-stent stenosis, a PSV >= 275 had 97% sensitivity, 68% specificity, a 67% PPV, and a 97% NPV; a Vr ratio >= 3.50 had 74% sensitivity, 94% specificity, a 77% PPV, and a 88% NPV. Combining a PSV >= 275 and a Vr >= 3.50 to determine >= 80% in-stent

stenosis had 74% sensitivity, 94% specificity, a 88% PPV, and a 85% NPV; odds ratio was 42.17 (95% confidence interval, 10.20-174.36, P < .001) to predict >= 80% in-stent stenosis. A significant drop in ABI (>0.15) correlated with a >62% in-stent stenosis, although the adjusted correlation coefficients was low (R-2 = 0.31, P = .02).

Conclusion: PSV and Vr appear to have a significant role in predicting in-stent stenosis. To determine >= 80% stenosis, combining PSV >= 275 cm/s and Vr >= 3.50 is highly specific and predictive. (J Vasc Surg 2009;49:133-9.)”
“Animals have the ability to respond to threatening situations with sets of defensive behaviors. This review demonstrates that defensive behaviors change during early life in mammals. First, unlearned responses are reorganized during early ontogeny and expressed in an age-specific way. Second, the expression of defensive responses is influenced by early experience prior to the first encounter with a threat.

Statin use at discharge decreased with increased renal impairment

Statin use at discharge decreased with increased renal impairment from 81% in eGFR stage 1 to 31% in eGFR stage 5. After adjusting for the propensity score and discharge medication, statin use was associated with a significant reduction in overall selleck chemicals llc risk of death (hazard ratio 0.63), with a statistically significant interaction between statin therapy and the stage of renal function. Thus, statin use at discharge was associated with improved 1-year survival of patients in stages 2-4 (mild-to-severe) of renal insufficiency. This effect appears attenuated

in those with stage 5 renal failure. Kidney International (2011) 79, 997-1004; doi:10.1038/ki.2010.524; published online 12 January 2011″
“We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process

sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. many) and negative (e.g. not many) quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in Many of the fans attended see more the game, focus is on the fans who attended (the reference set), and subsequent pronominal reference to this set, as in, Their presence was a boost to the team, is facilitated. In contrast, if many is replaced by not many, focus shifts to the fans who did not attend (the complement set), and reference to this set, as in. Their absence was disappointing, is preferred. In the current studies, the electroencephalogram buy 3-deazaneplanocin A (EEG) was recorded while participants read positive or negative quantified statements followed by anaphoric reference to the reference set or complement set. Results showed that the pronoun their elicited a larger N400 following negative than positive quantifiers. There was also a larger N400 on the disambiguating word (presence/absence) for complement set reference following a positive quantifier, and for reference set reference following a negative quantifier. Findings are discussed in relation to theoretical accounts of complement anaphora. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

transplant dysfunction, a major impediment to long-term allograft survival, is caused by several factors including an ongoing alloimmune response termed chronic rejection. To define some of these factors further, we selected 107 patients mismatched to their donors from 623 patients transplanted at a single center. Patients were categorized according to their immunosuppressive treatment and further divided into those with stable or chronic allograft dysfunction. Donor human lymphocyte antigen allopeptide-specific T-cell lines were then generated from stable patients and those with biopsy-proven chronic allograft nephropathy. Increased amounts of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Treg-associated gene expression profiles were found in cell lines derived from the patients with stable compared with those with chronic allograft dysfunction.