The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of self-reported depression and associated help-seeking among a sample of regular ecstasy users. A further aim was to examine the correlates of depressive symptomatology in this population. Materials and Methods: 100
regular ecstasy consumers (at least monthly use) were interviewed as part of the Ecstasy and Related Drug Reporting System in Tasmania, Australia. Participants were also administered epidemiological measures of depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale). Results: One quarter (23%) of participants self-reported recent experience of depression, a rate notably greater than the general click here population. However, only one third of these participants had attended a health professional Acalabrutinib purchase for this issue. A range of drug use factors (e. g. frequency and quantity of ecstasy use, frequent cannabis or methamphetamine use, intravenous drug use, polydrug use, binge drug use, harmful alcohol use, and elevated psychological dependence scores for ecstasy and methamphetamine) were associated with high levels of depressive symptomatology. Conclusion:
These findings are consistent with an association between depressive symptomatology and ecstasy and other drug use. Harm reduction strategies which target drug use factors such as those identified in this study may also aid in the reduction of the experience of depression. Considering the low levels of help-seeking among this population, improving awareness and access to information and treatment for depression may also be important. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A novel flavivirus was isolated from mosquitoes in Finland, representing the first mosquito-borne flavivirus from Northern Europe. The isolate, designated Lammi virus (LAMV), was antigenically cross-reactive with other flaviviruses and exhibited typical flavivirus morphology as determined by electron microscopy. The genomic sequence of LAMV was highly divergent from the recognized flaviviruses, and yet the polyprotein properties resembled those of mosquito-borne flaviviruses.
Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence showed that LAMV represented a Selleck JQ-EZ-05 distinct lineage related to the Aedes sp.-transmitted human pathogenic flaviviruses, similarly to the newly described Nounane virus (NOUV), a flavivirus from Africa (S. Junglen et al., J. Virol. 83: 4462-4468, 2009). Despite the low sequence homology, LAMV and NOUV were phylogenetically grouped closely, likely representing separate species of a novel group of flaviviruses. Despite the biological properties preferring replication in mosquito cells, the genetic relatedness of LAMV to viruses associated with vertebrate hosts warrants a search for disease associations.”
“The paper reviews convergent evidence on the ability to attribute mental states to one’s self and to others (i.e.