Materials and Methods: After institutional review board approval, written informed consent was waived. The study was HIPAA compliant. Thirty-six calcium oxalate stones were scanned in an anthropomorphic phantom. For the fixed threshold method, stones were segmented with 0.6-mm-thick sections by using attenuation thresholds of 130 and BVD-523 575 HU (equal to half of mean attenuation of all stones). For the variable threshold method, stones were segmented at an attenuation threshold equal to half of the attenuation of each stone and at variable section thicknesses (0.6, 1, and 3 mm), tube currents (150, 100, and 50 mAs [reference]),
and tube voltages (100 and 80 kVp). Normalized Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the bias and precision of the two CT methods compared with that of the fluid displacement method (reference standard). Two independent readers retrospectively
measured stone volumes in 17 patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.4; mean age, 55 years), and interobserver agreement was assessed by using Bland-Altman limits of agreement.
Results: The PP2 concentration variable threshold method was more accurate and precise than the fixed threshold method with an attenuation threshold of 130 HU (P < .0001). Thinner sections (0.6 and 1 mm) resulted in more accurate (P < .05) and precise (P < .0001) stone volume measurements than 3-mm-thick sections. With the variable threshold method, no significant difference was seen in the accuracy and precision of stone volume measurements at various tube currents
and tube potentials. Interobserver agreement was high with the fixed and variable threshold methods (r > 0.97).
Conclusion: An attenuation threshold-based CT method can be used to quantify urinary stone volume even at low radiation doses. The most accurate and precise PD-1/PD-L1 tumor method utilizes variable attenuation derived from the attenuation of each stone and thin sections.”
Finding fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species in a routine cervicovaginal Pap smear is a rare occurrence. When encountered, it is important to distinguish between a true infection and contamination. The fruiting body also plays a very important role in distinguishing the various Aspergillus species.
A 52-year-old woman underwent routine gynecologic anti Pap smear examination. Her per-vaginal and per-speculum examinations were unremarkable. Pap smear showed atrophic changes with few acute inflammatory cells. However, a large number of hyphae and marry fruiting bodies of Aspergillus species were observed in the smears. Close examination of the smear and clinical investigation indicated that the presence of Aspergillus species was due to contamination. Clinical follow-up with repeat Pap smear after 1 month was unremarkable.