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Competing interests The authors declared that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions XZ: performed construction of metagenomic library and gene cloning. HL: performed gene expression in E. coli and enzyme characterization. CJL: extracted DNA from soil samples. TM: collected soil samples of Turpan Basin. GL: designed and supervised the experiment, drafted and revised G protein-coupled receptor kinase the manuscript. YHL conceived this study. All authors have read and approved the manuscript.”
“Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), generally considered beneficial microorganisms, are found in diverse environments as part of human, animal, insect, and plant microbiomes and as microorganisms used in food applications. LAB are described as a biologically defined group rather than a taxonomically separate group [1, 2]. The majority are non-pathogenic gram-positive bacteria that produce lactic acid during carbohydrate hexose sugar metabolism.
However, there are known pathogenic species, most of which are found in the genus Streptococcus. LAB include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Aerococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, and Pediococcus that are functionally quite diverse [1, 3]. Bifidobacterium are classified as LAB biologically rather than taxonomically and have a high GC DNA base content. They are taxonomically classified as Actinobacteria. Lactobacillus, one of the most well-known genera of LAB, has a low GC DNA base content and is taxonomically classified as Firmicutes. Both are strictly fermentative (hetero- or homo-fermentative) and many species are known to produce antimicrobial substances, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), acetic acid, and in some cases, antimicrobial peptides known as bacteriocins [5–7].