2%, the CV of the post-race measurements was 20.5%. Immediately after arrival at the finish line, the identical measurements were repeated. Between the pre-race and post-race measurements, the athletes recorded their intake of food and drinks using a prepared paper
and pencil. At each of the 17 aid station they noted both the kind and the amount of ingested food and fluids. At these aid stations, liquids and food were prepared in a standardized manner, i.e. beverages and food were provided in standardized size portions. The drinking cups were filled to 0.2 L; the energy bars and the fruits were halved. The athletes also recorded additional food and fluid intake provided by their support crew, as well as their intake of salt tablets and other supplements. The compositions of fluids and solid food were selleck kinase inhibitor estimated using a food table . Statistical analysis Data are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). learn more Pre- and post-race results
were compared using paired t-test. Pearson correlation analysis was used to check for associations between the measured and calculated parameters. Statistical significance was accepted with p BMS202 chemical structure < 0.05 (two-sided hypothesis). Results Seventy-six of the 80 subjects completed the 100-km ultra-marathon within 731 (130) min, running at an average speed of 8.4 (1.4) km/h. Their training and previous experience is presented in Table 1. Four subjects failed to finish the 100-km race due to overuse injuries of the lower limbs and were withdrawn from the study. Table 2 shows the pre- and post-race measurements and their changes. Body mass decreased significantly by 1.8 (1.4) kg from 76.1 (9.8) kg pre-race to 74.3 (9.9) kg post-race (p < 0.0001), representing a 2.4% decrease in body mass. The volume of the foot remained unchanged (p > 0.05). In detail: in 20
runners, the foot volume increased, in 18 runners the volume showed no change and in 38 runners foot the volume decreased Resminostat (Figure 1). Table 2 Results of the physical, haematological and urinary parameters before and after the race. Pre-race* Post-race* Absolute change* Percent change* p-value** Body mass (kg) 76.1 (9.8) 74.3 (9.9) -1.8 (1.4) -2.4 (1.8) < 0.0001 Volume of the right foot (mL) 1,118 (225) 1,073 (227) -45 (201) -2.7 (18.2) > 0.05 Haematocrit (%) 44.8 (3.3) 43.6 (2.9) -1.2 (2.7) -2.3 (5.8) 0.0005 Plasma [Na+] (mmol/l) 137.0 (2.7) 138.6 (2.6) +1.6 (3.1) +1.2 (2.3) < 0.0001 Urine specific gravity (g/ml) 1.015 (0.008) 1.024 (0.008) +0.009 (0.008) +0.87 (0.79) < 0.0001 * n = 76, mean and (SD), ** by paired t-test Figure 1 Range of changes in foot volume. Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005), plasma volume increased by 5.3% (11.9) and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Plasma [Na+] increased significantly (p < 0.0001) by 1.2% from 137.0 (2.7) mmol/l to 138.6 (2.67) mmol/l, with a mean difference of 1.6 (3.1) mmol/l. Pre-race, 10 subjects showed plasma [Na+] < 135 mmol/L with values between 131 mmol/L and 134 mmol/L.