We further combined our dataset with previously published data on

We further combined our dataset with previously published data on Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation to explore a general isolation with migration model and infer the demographic parameters underlying current genetic diversity in Bantu populations.\n\nResults: Correspondence analysis, lineage sharing patterns and admixture estimates indicate that the gene pool from southwestern Angola is predominantly derived from West-Central Africa. The pastoralist Herero-speaking Kuvale people were additionally characterized by relatively high frequencies

of Y-chromosome (12%) and mtDNA (22%) Khoe-San lineages, as well as by the presence of the -14010C lactase persistence mutation (6%), which likely originated in non-Bantu pastoralists from East Africa. Inferred demographic parameters show that both male and female populations underwent significant size AZD1208 nmr growth after the split between the western and eastern branches of Bantu expansions occurring 4000 years ago. However, males had lower population sizes and migration rates than females throughout the Bantu dispersals.\n\nConclusion: Genetic variation in southwestern Angola essentially results from the encounter of an offshoot of West-Central Africa with autochthonous Khoisan-speaking peoples from the south. Interactions between the Bantus and the Khoe-San likely involved cattle herders from the two

groups sharing common aspects of their social organization. The presence of the -14010C mutation in southwestern Angola provides a link between the East and Southwest African pastoral Fludarabine scenes that might have been established indirectly, through migrations of Khoe herders across southern Africa. Differences in patterns of mtDNA and Y-chromosome intrapopulation diversity and interpopulation differentiation may be explained by contrasting demographic histories underlying the current female and male genetic

“Objectives: If a mother has contracted chickenpox, the antibodies in her milk confer immunity against chickenpox to her breastfed babies. This passive immunization may avoid or spare the breastfed babies’ symptoms PLX4032 of chickenpox. It is hypothesized that frozen breast milk may shorten chickenpox duration because specific antibodies against varicella zoster have been detected in human milk and they are resistant to digestion and are stable in frozen milk.\n\nDesign: The clinical outcomes of chickenpox in a 9-year-old boy and his father on frozen breast milk are reported.\n\nSettings: The study comprised a varicella-vaccine-refusing family attending a private office of pediatrics.\n\nInterventions and results: The boy presented with a crusted varicella rash. The medical history revealed premature cessation of the typical varicella rash on day 3. It was coincidental with a supply of frozen human milk by his mother.

33-8 38]), believing

33-8.38]), believing 3-deazaneplanocin A that H1N1 is a greater community concern than other diseases (OR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.01-3.09]), believing that other methods of containment (eg, hand-washing, masks) are not as effective as the H1N1 vaccine (OR: 1.73 [95% CI: 1.06-2.83]), and a desire to promote influenza vaccination in the community (OR: 2.35 [95% CI: 1.53-3.61]).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: We found low acceptance of the H1N1 vaccine in our study population. Perceived influenza susceptibility, concern about

H1N1 disease, and confidence in vaccinations as preventive methods were associated with vaccine acceptance. Physician support for HIN1 vaccination will aid in increasing immunization coverage for this population, and health departments are perceived as ideal community locations for vaccine administration. Pediatrics 2011;127:S113-S119″
“Background: The search for gene

candidates in multifactorial diseases such as sarcoidosis can be based on the integration of linkage association data, gene expression data, and protein profile data from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies, respectively.\n\nMaterial/Methods: In this study we performed a literature-based search for studies reporting such data, followed by integration of collected information. Different databases were examined-Medline, HugGE Navigator, ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Candidate genes were defined as genes which were reported in at least 2 different types of omics studies. Genes previously investigated in sarcoidosis were excluded from further analyses.\n\nResults: We identified 177 genes associated with sarcoidosis as potential new candidate genes. Selleck Cyclopamine Subsequently, 9 gene candidates identified to overlap in 2 different types of studies (genomic, transcriptomic

and/or proteomic) were consistently reported in at least 3 studies: SERPINB1, FABP4, S100A8, HBEGF, IL7R, LRIG1, PTPN23, DPM2 and NUP214. These genes are involved in regulation of immune response, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, inhibition of protease activity, lipid metabolism. Exact biological functions of HBEGF, LRIG1, PTPN23, DPM2 and NUP214 remain to be completely elucidated.\n\nConclusions: We propose 9 candidate genes: SERPINB1, FABP4, S100A8, HBEGF, IL7R, LRIG1, PTPN23, DPM2 and NUP214, as genes with PFTα in vitro high potential for association with sarcoidosis.”
“Aim:\n\nHigh rates of paediatric ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery persist. Little is known about its impact on health service utilisation. This study investigated whether children who had ENT surgery used more health services prior to surgery (excluding the perisurgery period), and, if so, whether surgery resulted in reduced utilisation.\n\nMethods:\n\nA retrospective population cohort study of health services use (measured by Medicare claims) by 6239 New South Wales children from the time of their birth in January 1990 until December 1997.

Here, we first review the role of the cell cycle in pituitary tum

Here, we first review the role of the cell cycle in pituitary tumorigenesis, as witnessed by human pathology and transgenic mice; and then, we focus on HMGA proteins and their cell cycle-related role in pituitary tumorigenesis. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (2010) 44, 309-318″
“Lonomia obliqua envenomation is characterized by intense local inflammatory reaction, which, dependent on the severity of the case, is followed by severe clinical manifestations related to hemorrhagic disorders that can lead to fatal outcome. These effects GSK1120212 in vitro were imputed to several toxins present in L obliqua venom,

which are responsible for procoagulant, anticoagulant GM6001 in vitro as well as antithrombotic activities, being also able to interfere with vascular cells functions. In this work, the intravital microscopy analysis show that after administration of low doses of L. obliqua venom (1-3 mu g/ml) on hamster cheek pouch, there was no alterations neither

on arterioles or venules caliber nor in the vascular permeability up to 30 min. However, after 10 min in contact with venom occurred a clear activation in the vascular bed, characterized by an increase in leukocyte rolling and adhesion on endothelium of hamster cheek pouch venules. A confocal analysis of vascular beds, confirmed these results showing an increase in endothelial E-selectin and VCAM-1 expression. The effects of L. obliqua venom https://www.selleckchem.com/products/elafibranor.html on human endothelial cell (EC) in vitro were also investigated.

The treatment of EC with venom (1-3 mu g/ml) did not affect cell viability. However, at concentrations as low as 3 mu g/ml of L. obliqua venom modifies actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and increases focal adhesion contacts, inducing stress fiber formation, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and its subsequent association to actin. These effects are followed by the activation of NF-kappa B pathway, a critical signaling in several events associated to vascular inflammation. Accordingly, L. obliqua venom leads to a significant increase in COX-2, NOS-2, HO-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Taken together the data show that, even at low concentrations, L. obliqua venom can activate endothelial cells, which assume a pro-inflammatory profile, contributing for local effects and probably also for systemic disturbances due to its ability to modulate the properties of the vascular system. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The long-term response, including recovery, of aquatic macroinvertebrates to short-term insecticide exposure may be affected by the presence of uncontaminated refuges in the stressed ecosystem.

The pooled sensitivity of MIBG scintigraphy to detect PD was 89%

The pooled sensitivity of MIBG scintigraphy to detect PD was 89% (95% Cl: 86-91%); the pooled specificity of MIBG scintigraphy to discriminate between PD and MSA was 77% (95% Cl: 68-84%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.93.\n\nConclusions: MIBG scintigraphy is an accurate test for PD detection and differential THZ1 Cell Cycle inhibitor diagnosis between PD and MSA; this method shows high sensitivity and adequate specificity in this field. Nevertheless, possible causes of false negative and false positive findings should be considered when interpreting the

scintigraphic results. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background A new 8% ciclopirox-medicated nail lacquer (P-3051), based on a new technology, revealed superior properties in terms of affinity to keratin, nail permeation, and ease of use. Objective This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of P-3051 vs. the market see more 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer.\n\nMethods This is a multicentre, randomized, three-arm, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, evaluator-blinded study. Overall, 467 patients

with onychomycosis of at least one big toenail were randomized to receive P-3051, the reference drug or placebo in a 2 : 2 : 1 ratio for a 48-week treatment by daily application, followed by a 12-week follow-up.\n\nResults The study satisfied its objective by demonstrating that P-3051 was both superior to placebo and non-inferior to reference in the complete cure rate after a 48-week active treatment period. Switching the non-inferiority Stattic supplier to superiority hypothesis, the superiority of P-3051 vs. reference was nearly significant at week 48 (confirmed at week 52), and it was significant at week 60 (cure rate for P-3051 is 119% higher than reference; P < 0.05). Altogether, the results on primary endpoint exceed expectations; superiority test was performed also on secondary endpoints to confirm the superiority trend of the study. At the end of follow-up, percentages of patients who achieved the endpoint ‘responder’

in the P-3051 group were 66% higher than reference (P < 0.05), and those who achieved the endpoint ‘decrease of diseased nail’ were 40% higher (P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion Ciclopirox 8% hydrolacquer is more active than reference ciclopirox nail lacquer in the treatment of onychomycosis.”
“Background: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest comorbidity between prostate cancer (PCA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, the relationship between these two phenotypes is still not well understood. Here we sought to identify shared genetic loci between PCA and CVD risk factors. Methods: We applied a genetic epidemiology method based on conjunction false discovery rate (FDR) that combines summary statistics from different genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and allows identification of genetic overlap between two phenotypes.

This circuit

was implemented in a standard 130 nm CMOS te

This circuit

was implemented in a standard 130 nm CMOS technology and designed in two different layouts. Measurements show a good operation with a minimal supply voltage of 2.5 V, a PSRR of 80 dB at 3.3 V. The voltage output shift is around 0.5% Z-IETD-FMK mw under irradiation up to 40 krad(Si). The active area of the circuit is about 0.04 mm(2).”
“We found a rare muscular variation in the superficial region of the popliteal fossa in a 61-year-old Korean male cadaver whose cause of death was laryngeal carcinoma during routine dissection course for medical students. The muscle ran transversely between the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle and the tendon of the long head of biceps femoris muscle, covering the neurovascular structures in the popliteal fossa. The muscle received its nerve supply from the tibial nerve. Based on its innervation, we speculated that the anomalous muscle might be a very specific type of variation related to the gastrocnemius tertius rather than another superficial muscle in the popliteal fossa.”
“The interaction between the Drosophila cadherins fat and dachsous is regulated by phosphorylation of

their respective ectodomains, a process catalysed by the atypical kinase four-jointed. Given that many signalling functions are conserved between Drosophila and vertebrate Fat cadherins, we sought to determine whether ectodomain phosphorylation is conserved in FAT1 cadherin, and also whether FJX1, the vertebrate orthologue of four-jointed, EPZ-6438 in vitro was involved in such phosphorylation Ulixertinib datasheet events. Potential Fj consensus phosphorylation motifs were identified in FAT1 and biochemical experiments revealed the presence of phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues in its extracellular domain. However, silencing FJX1 did not influence the levels of FAT1 ectodomain phosphorylation, indicating that other mechanisms are likely responsible. (C) 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Human immunodeficiency deficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with chronic inflammation and an increased risk of thrombotic events. Activated platelets (PLTs) play an important role in both thrombosis and inflammation, and HIV has been shown to induce PLT activation by both direct and indirect mechanisms. P-selectin (CD62P) is a well-described marker of PLT activation, and PLT glycoprotein (GP) IV (CD36) has been identified as a marker of PLT aggregation. Data on PLT function in the context of HIV infection remain inconclusive. Laboratory techniques, such as flow cytometry, enable the assessment of PLTs in their physiological state and environment, with minimal artifactual in vitro activation and aggregation. In this study, we describe a novel flow cytometry PLT assay, which enabled the measurement of PLT function in HIV infection. Forty-one antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive individuals and 41 HIV-negative controls were recruited from a clinic in the Western Cape.

Methods: Community organizations providing services mainly to

\n\nMethods: Community organizations providing services mainly to persons with developmental LY2157299 disabilities in Ontario were recruited to circulate a questionnaire to their members by mail or the Internet.

Fourteen organizations mailed out a total of 1,755 paper questionnaires in autumn 2006, of which 420 (23.9%) were returned; in addition, 236 Internet questionnaires were returned.\n\nResults: Of the 656 paper and Internet responses, 634 were deemed valid. Most of the respondents had developmental disabilities. Almost three-quarters of respondents (464 [73.2%]) reported being able to access dental services in Ontario. Personal (internal) factors were more likely to represent CX-6258 ic50 barriers to dental care than external factors.\n\nConclusions: The majority of persons with disabilities and most caregivers believed

that oral health is important for overall health.”
“Childhood maltreatment, through epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). We investigated whether childhood maltreatment and its severity were associated with increased methylation of the exon 1(F) NR3C1 promoter, in 101 borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 99 major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects with, respectively, a high and low rate of childhood maltreatment, and 15 MDD subjects with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Childhood sexual abuse, its severity and the number of type of maltreatments positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation (P = 6.16 x 10(-8), 5.18 x 10(-7) and 1.25 x 10(-9), respectively). In BPD, repetition of abuses and sexual abuse with penetration correlated with a higher methylation percentage. Peripheral blood might therefore serve as a proxy for environmental effects on epigenetic processes. These findings suggest that early life events may permanently impact on the HPA axis

though epigenetic modifications of the NR3C1. This is a mechanism by which childhood maltreatment may lead to adulthood psychopathology. Translational Psychiatry (2011) 1, e59; doi:10.1038/tp.2011.60; published online 13 December 2011″
“Objectives This study sought to investigate whether JQ-EZ-05 chemical structure obesity in the absence of metabolic abnormalities might be a relatively benign condition in relation to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). Background The results of previous studies are conflicting for AMI and largely unknown for HF, and the role of the duration of obesity has not been investigated. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study, a total of 61,299 men and women free of cardiovascular disease were classified according to body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status at baseline. BMI also was measured 10 and 30 years before baseline for 27,196 participants.

Susceptibility tests were performed using the microdilution metho

Susceptibility tests were performed using the microdilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. MICs were determined in triplicate by E-test according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Susceptible CB-839 molecular weight and multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) strains were detected using CHROMagar Acinetobacter medium. Carbapenem resistant A. baumannii was investigated for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT) and by multiplex PCR. A Synergy test was performed using the E-test method. Results: Considering years 2006, 2009 and 2012, the susceptibilities

to meropenem and imipenem were 64-81.2%, 34.5-45.3%, and 8.3-11%, respectively. Concerning the 12 XDRAB strains, all isolates were susceptible to colistin and resistant to meropenem and imipenem. Culture on CHROMagar Acinetobacter confirmed that all are MDRAB. The gene profiles detected in PCR assays showed that all the strains possess OXA-51. Out of the 12 isolates, 11 possess the oxa-23 gene and one harbours the gene 24/40. A good synergistic effect was detected between colistin and tigecycline. Conclusions: In this study, A. baumannii susceptibility to carbapenems showed a drastic reduction VX-689 molecular weight and represents a major epidemiological

concern. The main carbapenem resistance mechanism is mediated by class D-OXA-type enzymes (oxa-23 and oxa-24/40) with Carbapenemase activity. Therapeutic options are exceedingly limited, relying on polymyxin combinations with other antibiotics. We are clearly missing new active agents against XDRAB.”
“Vector-borne pathogens regulate their protein expression profiles, producing factors during host infection that differ from those produced during vector colonization. The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdotferi, produces Erp surface proteins throughout mammalian infection and represses their synthesis during colonization of vector ticks. Known functions of Erp proteins include binding of host laminin, plasmin(ogen), and regulators of complement activation. A DNA region immediately 5′ of erp operons, the erp operator, is required

LY2835219 Cell Cycle inhibitor for transcriptional regulation. The B. burgdorferi BpaB and EbfC proteins exhibit high in vitro affinities for erp operator DNA. In the present studies, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated that both proteins bind erp operator DNA in vivo. Additionally, a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods demonstrated that BpaB functions as a repressor of erp transcription, while EbfC functions as an antirepressor.”
“Angiogenesis is a highly organized process controlled by a series of molecular events. While much effort has been devoted to identifying angiogenic factors and their reciprocal receptors, far less information is available on the molecular mechanisms underlying directed endothelial cell migration.

Equilibrium sedimentation revealed

Equilibrium sedimentation revealed Rabusertib that the reduced dimer dissociated at lower GdmCl concentration than the oxidized form. This implies that the disulfide bond shifts the monomer-dimer equilibrium. Interestingly, the dimer-monomer dissociation transition occurred at lower GdmCl concentration than the unfolding transition. Thus, disulfide bond formation in the human C(H)3 domain is important for stability and

dimerization. Here we show the importance of the role played by the disulfide bond and how it affects the stability and monomer -dimer equilibrium of the human C(H)3 domain. Hence, these results may have implications for the stability of the intact antibody.”
“Background: Acute soft tissue wounds are commonly seen in the prehospital setting. It was hypothesised that there is a lack of consistency in early management of trauma wounds, particularly in the dressings used.\n\nMethods: In January 2007 a questionnaire-based study was undertaken to evaluate the early management of such injuries. All 13 UK ambulance services were contacted, as well as 2 voluntary ambulance

services. The questionnaire considered the implementation of a wound treatment policy and staff training, immediate wound management Selleck GDC973 including haemostasis, cleansing, analgesia, dressings and the use of antibiotics.\n\nResults: The response rate was 100%. Only 27% of services had a wound treatment policy in place, but all services implemented staff training. All services regularly achieved haemostasis of wounds using a combination of pressure and elevation. Regular cleansing was performed by 47% of services and those that did so used normal saline or water. All ambulance services administered analgesics. The most commonly used analgesics were Entonox and intravenous morphine. Other analgesics administered were paracetamol and ibuprofen.

No local anaesthesia was used. Dressings were applied regularly by all services; 13 different types of dressings were in regular use.\n\nConclusions: Src inhibitor This study confirmed that there is currently no national standard protocol for early acute wound management in the prehospital care setting. The key areas for improvement are cleansing, simplification of dressings and the introduction of standardised protocols and teaching.”
“Objective: To determine the pattern of Her-2/neu status among breast carcinoma in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for Her-2/neu was performed on 10% formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary carcinoma of the breast from 83 patients, between 2003 and 2007 using anti-Her-2/neu rabbit polyclonal antibody (DakoCytomation, CA, USA) and reactivity detected by an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method. The clinicopathologic parameters analyzed were patients’ age, histological types, and tumor grade. The Her-2/neu Dako scoring system was used.

1 cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, the topology-specific estimat

1 cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, the topology-specific estimated predictive value improved from 56% to 91%.\n\nConclusions-Although in silico prediction tools should not be used to predict independently the pathogenicity of a YM155 cell line novel, rare nSNV, our results support the potential clinical use of the synergistic utility of these tools to enhance the classification of nsSNVs, particularly for Kv11.1′s difficult to interpret C-terminal region. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:519-528.)”
“Selective catalytic reduction by ethanol

on silver-based catalysts was proved to be very effective to abate the nitrogen oxides emitted at the exhaust of an automotive engine. Moreover, the selectivity to Selleck GDC0068 ammonia of this reaction may be exploited to further enhance the NOx reduction using a dedicated transition metal exchanged zeolite catalyst. This coupling between HC- and NH3-SCR is called Dual SCR. In order to control the

silver-based catalyst efficiency via ethanol injection, a NOx sensor is located downstream of it, as usually done for urea-SCR on series vehicles. Furthermore, based on the cross-sensitivity of this NOx sensor, large amounts of ammonia were estimated that would help to reduce the remaining NOx on the zeolite based catalyst. However, when measured by FTIR technique, the concentrations of ammonia produced by the HC-SCR catalyst were surprisingly not as high as expected, while large amounts of acetaldehyde were detected and, in a lesser extent, PRT062607 formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide. NOx were partly reduced over the iron-exchanged zeolite catalyst, improving the overall deNOx efficiency by up to 15 points, while acetaldehyde to formaldehyde ratio reversed and ammonia concentration remains unchanged. The cross-sensitivity of the NOx sensor was further investigated on synthetic gas bench. If its partial dependence on the ammonia concentration is rather well known, the influence of aldehydes and hydrogen cyanide in presence of ammonia had not yet been investigated.

The NOx sensor’s signal remains unchanged whatever the aldehydes concentration and a strong sensitivity to the hydrogen cyanide was highlighted.”
“Objective: Controversial and misleading interpretation of data from randomized trials is common. How to avoid misleading interpretation has received little attention. Herein, we describe two applications of an approach that involves blinded interpretation of the results by study investigators. Study Design and Settings: The approach involves developing two interpretations of the results on the basis of a blinded review of the primary outcome data (experimental treatment A compared with control treatment B). One interpretation assumes that A is the experimental intervention and another assumes that A is the control.

WIN also decreased expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcr

WIN also decreased expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4, and this is consistent with the observed downregulation of the aforementioned Sp-regulated genes. In addition, we also observed by RNA interference (RNAi) that the oncogenic cap protein eIF4E was an Sp-regulated selleckchem gene also downregulated by WIN in colon cancer cells. WIN-mediated repression of Sp proteins was not affected by cannabinoid receptor antagonists or by knockdown of the receptor but was attenuated by the phosphatase inhibitor

sodium orthovanadate or by knockdown of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). WIN-mediated repression of Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 AZD6738 nmr was due to PP2A-dependent downregulation of microRNA-27a (miR-27a)

and induction of miR-27a-regulated ZBTB10, which has previously been characterized as an “Sp repressor.” The results show that the anticancer activity of WIN is due, in part, to PP2A-dependent disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 and ZBTB10-mediated repression of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes, including eIF4E. (C) 2013 AACR.”
“OBJECTIVE\n\nTo compare the outcomes of flexible ureterorenoscopy (F-URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for treatment of lower pole stones of 10-20 mm.\n\nPATIENTS AND METHODS\n\nThe database of patients with a single lower pole stone of 10-20 mm was examined to obtain two matched groups who were treated with F-URS or ESWL. Matching criteria were stone length, side and patient gender.\n\nStone-free rates were evaluated 3 months after the last treatment session by non-contrast computed tomography. Both groups were compared for retreatment rate, complications and stone-free rate.\n\nRESULTS\n\nThe matched groups included 37 patients who underwent F-URS and 62 patients who underwent ESWL. Retreatment rate was significantly higher for GSK1210151A ESWL (60% vs 8%, P < 0.001).\n\nComplications

were more after F-URS (13.5% vs 4.8%), but the difference was not significant (P = 0.146). All complications were grade II or IIIa on modified Clavien classification.\n\nThe stone-free rate was significantly better after F-URS (86.5% vs 67.7%, P = 0.038). One failure of F-URS (2.7%) and five failures (8%) of ESWL were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy.\n\nSignificant residual fragments in three patients (8%) after F-URS were treated with ESWL, while significant residual fragments after ESWL in five patients (8%) were treated with F-URS. Residual fragments (<4 mm) were followed every 3 months in one patient (2.7%) after F-URS and in 10 patients (16%) after ESWL.\n\nCONCLUSIONS\n\nFor treatment of lower pole stones of 10-20 mm, F-URS provided significantly higher stone-free rate and lower retreatment rate compared with ESWL.