Results:The WD increased susceptibility to DSS-induced in

\n\nResults:\n\nThe WD increased susceptibility to DSS-induced inflammation and accelerated the infiltration of macrophages. The incidence and multiplicity of colon tumors were higher in mice fed the WD than in those fed the CD (P < 0.05). Levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) 2 and prostaglandin

(PG) E(2) in the colon were higher after treatment with AOM and DSS in mice fed the WD than in those fed the CD. In addition, WD consumption increased the DNA binding activity of nuclear LY3039478 solubility dmso factor-kappaB and the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Mice fed the WD had higher numbers of F4/80-positive cells surrounding cancer cells compared with mice fed the CD. These cells expressed

PTGS2, TNF-alpha and beta-catenin, which are up-regulated by the WD. We also found that the WD increased unphosphorylated beta-catenin accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of colon cancer cells.\n\nConclusions:\n\nA WD increases the susceptibility to DSS-induced inflammation and accelerates the infiltration of macrophages. In turn, this resulted in the development and progression of colon cancer.”
“Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4 alpha) regulates genes involved in lipid and bile acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis, amino acid metabolism, and blood coagulation. In addition to its metabolic role, HNF4 alpha is critical for hepatocyte differentiation, and loss of HNF4 alpha is associated with hepatocellular compound inhibitor carcinoma. The hepatocyte-specific Hnf4a knock-out mouse develops severe hepatomegaly and steatosis resulting in premature death, thereby limiting studies of the role of this transcription factor in the adult animal. In addition,

gene compensation may complicate analysis of the phenotype of these mice. To overcome these issues, an acute Hnf4a knock-out mouse model was generated through use of the tamoxifen-inducible ErT2cre coupled to the serum albumin gene promoter. Microarray expression analysis revealed up-regulation of genes associated with proliferation and BMS-754807 purchase cell cycle control only in the acute liver-specific Hnf4 alpha-null mouse. BrdU and ki67 staining confirmed extensive hepatocyte proliferation in this model. Proliferation was associated with induction of the hepatomitogen Bmp7 as well as reduced basal apoptotic activity. The p53/p63 apoptosis effector gene Perp was further identified as a direct HNF4 alpha target gene. These data suggest that HNF4 alpha maintains hepatocyte differentiation in the adult healthy liver, and its loss may directly contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma development, thus indicating this factor as a possible liver tumor suppressor gene.”
“Background: Recent data suggest that cigarette smoking (CS) might decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or established cardiovascular disease.

“Loop-tail (Lp) mice show a very sever e neural tube defec

“Loop-tail (Lp) mice show a very sever e neural tube defect (craniorachischists) caused by mutations in the Vangl2 tame (D255E, S464N) Mammalian Vangl1 and Vangl2 are membrane proteins that play critical roles in development such as establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial layers and convergent extension movements during neurogenesis and cardiogenesis. Vangl proteins are thought to assemble with other PCP proteins (Dvl, Pk) to form membrane-bound PCP

signaling complexes that provide polarity information to the cell. In the present study, we show that Vangl I is expressed exclusively at the plasma membrane of transfected MDCK cells, where it is targeted to the basolateral membrane Experiments with an inserted exofacial HA epitope indicate that the segment delimited by the predicted transmembrane domains 1 and 2 is exposed to the extracellular milieu Comparative click here studies of the Lp-associated

pathogenic mutation D255E indicate that the targeting GF120918 nmr of the mutant variant at the plasma membrane is greatly reduced; the mutant variant is predominantly retained intracellularly in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) vesicles colocalizing with the ER marker calreticulin. In addition, the D255E variant shows drastically reduced stability with a half-life of similar to 2 h, compared to > 9 h for its wild type counterpart and is rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent and MG132 sensitive pathway. These (inclines highlight a critical role for D255 for normal folding and processing of Vangl proteins, with highly conservative substitutions not tolerated at that site. Our study provide an experimental framework for the analysis of human VANGL mutations recently identified in familial and sporadic cases of spina bifida.”
“Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Recent studies demonstrate that fetal programming of PKC epsilon gene repression results in ischemia-sensitive phenotype in the heart. The present study tests the LOXO-101 hypothesis that increased norepinephrine causes epigenetic repression of PKC epsilon gene in the heart

via Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Prolonged norepinephrine treatment increased ROS production in fetal rat hearts and embryonic ventricular myocyte H9c2 cells via a selective increase in Nox1 expression. Norepinephrine-induced ROS resulted in an increase in PKC epsilon promoter methylation at Egr-1 and Sp-1 binding sites, leading to PKC epsilon gene repression. N-acetylcysteine, diphenyleneiodonium, and apocynin blocked norepinephrine-induced ROS production and the promoter methylation, and also restored PKC epsilon mRNA and protein to control levels in vivo in fetal hearts and in vitro in embryonic myocyte cells. Accordingly, norepinephrine-induced ROS production, promoter methylation, and PKC epsilon gene repression were completely abrogated by knockdown of Nox1 in cardiomyocytes.

The HG component revealed

The HG component revealed strong membrane staining for EGFR and beta-catenin, cytoplasmic/nuclear

staining for S-100 protein, and nuclear staining for cyclin-D1, whereas HER-2/neu was absent. Analysis for the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript revealed positivity in both HG and low-grade component of MASC in 2 of the 3 studied cases. The tumor in case 2 was negative in both its elements for the t(12; 15) translocation, but ETV6 gene rearrange-ment was detected in both components in all 3 cases. Analysis of TP53 and CTNNB1 gene mutations in the HG component of MASCs as well as detection of copy number aberration of EGFR and CCND1 gene did not harbor any abnormalities. All 3 patients with

HG-transformed MASC A-1331852 clinical trial died of disseminated disease within 2 to 6 years after diagnosis. Recognizing HG-transformed MASC and testing for ETV6 rearrangement may be of potential value in patient treatment, because the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation may represent a therapeutic target in MASC.”
“Lateral digital flexor tendonitis is a rarely reported cause of hind limb lameness in performance horses. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe clinical and diagnostic imaging findings for a group of horses with lateral digital flexor tendinitis within the tarsal sheath. Equine cases with a diagnosis of lateral digital flexor tendonitis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the affected Pevonedistat molecular weight region were retrieved from North Carolina University’s medical record database. Recorded data for included horses were signalment; findings from history, physical examination, lameness examination, and all diagnostic imaging studies; treatment administered; and outcome. Four horses met inclusion criteria. Lameness was mild/moderate in severity and insidious in onset in all patients. Responses to flexion tests were variable. All horses showed positive improvement (70-90%) in lameness after tarsal

sheath analgesia. Radiographic, scintigraphic, and ultrasonographic findings were inconclusive. For all horses, MRI characteristics included increased T2, PD, and STIR signal intensity within the lateral digital flexor tendon in the area of the tarsal sheath. Tarsal sheath effusion was slight in three horses, and mild/moderate in one horse. With medical treatment, two horses were sound at 6-month followup, one horse was sound at 1-year followup, and one horse had a slight persistent lameness (grade 1/5) at 9-month followup. Findings supported the use of MRI for diagnosing lateral digital flexor tendonitis within the tarsal sheath in horses. Affected horses may have a good prognosis for return to athletic performance following appropriate medical treatment.”
“Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver related morbidity and mortality.

Access through a 9-French sheath was necessary to introduce the A

Access through a 9-French sheath was necessary to introduce the Amplatzer Vascular III plug. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) was used to guide the operator and evaluate the severity of regurgitation postimplantation. Results: In total seven consecutive patients (mean age 72.8 +/- 5.6 years, 86% male) with a history of mitral valve (n = 6) or aortic valve YM155 replacement and severe PVL, underwent transapical PVL reduction using seven plugs in total (diameter 10-14 mm). Preprocedural median logistic

EuroSCORE was 28.5% (range 17.1-41.1%) and NYHA functional class was >= 3 in all patients. The procedure was successful in all patients, with a median fluoroscopic time of 18.7 min (range 10.1-29.6 min). Postprocedure 3D-TEE showed occlusion of PVL in three patients, and significant reduction in three patients. Postprocedural

complication was a hematothorax requiring surgery in one patient. Median hospitalization duration CBL0137 clinical trial after the procedure was 5 days (range 5-59 days). At 3-month follow-up one patient died, functional class and LDH did not differ significantly and there was a significant increase in hemoglobin. Conclusions: Transapical paravalvular leak reduction might be a good or rather attractive alternative in high-risk patients for major re-do cardiac surgery. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis is a still underdiagnosed cause of stroke, with an incidence of about 2.8 events per 100,000 person-years in young women and about 1.3 events per 100,000 person-years in the general population. Puerperium, oral hormonal contraception, and

coagulation disorders remain the most frequently identified risk factors. Initial treatment with heparin is the only proven therapy, although the evidence is based on only two randomized placebo-controlled trials which together included 79 patients. In the case of clinical deterioration under anticoagulation, local thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy may be considered, but clinical efficacy is supported only by case reports. Patients with imminent lateral herniation due to large hemorrhagic infarctions should be treated with prompt surgical decompression. Following the acute phase, oral anticoagulation is recommended for 312 months, and only patients suffering from GDC-0068 manufacturer a severe coagulopathy or with recurrent cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis should be considered for long-term anticoagulation. Only insufficient experience is available for novel anticoagulants such as thrombin inhibitors or factor Xa antagonists.”
“Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste sensitivity is an inherited trait determined primarily by allelic variation of the taste-receptor gene TAS2R38 on chromosome 7q. Results of prior studies examining the ability to taste PTC in patients with schizophrenia have been mixed because of the difficulties in measuring PTC taste sensitivity behaviorally.

A large body of evidence from both human and animal studies now p

A large body of evidence from both human and animal studies now points to a relationship between circadian disorders and altered metabolic response, suggesting that circadian and metabolic regulatory networks are tightly connected. After a review of the current understanding of the molecular circadian core clock, we will discuss the hypothesis that clock genes themselves

link the core molecular clock and metabolic regulatory SHP099 price networks. We propose that the nuclear receptor and core clock component Rev-erb-alpha behaves as a gatekeeper to timely coordinate the circadian metabolic response.”
“Trypanosomes are parasites that cycle between the insect host (procyclic form) and mammalian host (bloodstream form). These parasites lack conventional transcription regulation, including factors that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, they possess a stress response mechanism, the spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS) pathway. SLS elicits shutoff of spliced leader RNA (SL RNA) transcription by perturbing the binding of the transcription factor tSNAP42 to its cognate promoter, thus eliminating trans-splicing of all mRNAs. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in procyclic trypanosomes elicits changes in the transcriptome similar to those induced by conventional UPR found in other eukaryotes. The mechanism of

up-regulation under ER stress is dependent on differential stabilization of mRNAs. The transcriptome

changes are accompanied by ER dilation and elevation in the ER chaperone, BiP. INCB018424 supplier Prolonged ER stress induces SLS pathway. RNAi silencing of SEC63, Selleckchem Adavosertib a factor that participates in protein translocation across the ER membrane, or SEC61, the translocation channel, also induces SLS. Silencing of these genes or prolonged ER stress led to programmed cell death (PCD), evident by exposure of phosphatidyl serine, DNA laddering, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as typical morphological changes observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ER stress response is also induced in the bloodstream form and if the stress persists it leads to SLS. We propose that prolonged ER stress induces SLS, which serves as a unique death pathway, replacing the conventional caspase-mediated PCD observed in higher eukaryotes.”
“Patient-reported outcomes are important for clinical practice and research, and should reflect what patients perceive as important. The objective of this study was to develop and preliminarily validate a brief, patient-derived, disease-specific tool, the pancreatic cancer disease impact (PACADI) score.\n\nThe development was performed in two phases. Forty-one patients with confirmed pancreatic cancer (PC) selected dimensions of health related to the impact of the disease.

Here, we presented various hierarchical global/local letter stimu

Here, we presented various hierarchical global/local letter stimuli at different viewing distances and sizes to separate the selleck compound impacts of retinal versus physical size. Our findings indicate a key role

for visual angle in determining simultanagnosic perception. We observed that not only retinal spacing (in terms of visual angle) between local elements had a major impact on global perception in simultanagnosia, but also the physical size of the separation between local elements, provided that binocular cues to viewing distance were available. The results indicate both pre-size-constancy retinal influences and binocular-post-constancy influences upon conscious perception in simultanagnosia. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“DNA-binding ability has previously been reported as a novel function for the thermostable Lon protease from Brevibacillus thermoruber WR-249 (Bt-Lon), and the alpha subdomain (amino acids 491-605) of Bt-Lon has been identified as being responsible for DNA binding. However, the physiological role and DNA-recognition mode of Bt-Lon still

remain unclear. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Bt-Lon alpha subdomain are presented. Native diffraction data to 2.88 angstrom resolution were obtained from a vitrified crystal at 100 K on the BL13C1 beamline at the NSRRC (National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center), Taiwan. The crystals belonged to space group P23, with unit-cell parameters see more a = b = c = 94.28 angstrom. Solvent-content calculations and molecular-replacement results suggest that there are two molecules of Bt-Lon alpha subdomain per asymmetric unit.”
“The effect of nanopatterns on Kapitza resistance of water boiling on a gold surface is examined via molecular

dynamics simulations. The TIP4P-Ew potential for water, embedded-atom model for gold, and the calibrated Lennard-Jones parameters for water-gold interactions are used to accurately predict the boiling point of water and Vorinostat research buy the wetting angle of water on gold. The results show that boiling of water does not affect the Kapitza resistance of the water-gold interface. The increase of the height of nanopatterns leads to a reduction of the Kapitza resistance by increasing the interaction energy per unit area at the water-gold interface. With the increase of the width-to-spacing ratio of nanopatterns, the Kapitza resistance reduces due to the decrease of the mismatch between the vibrational density of states of water and gold. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy has gained acceptance as a safe and oncologically sound alternative to the open procedure. Intercostal incisions alter chest wall mechanics and lead to postoperative pain.

e , caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, red nucleus, and s

e., caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra) in the older than in the young group. The two QSM methods appeared more sensitive

in detecting age differences in brain stem structures as they revealed differences of much higher statistical significance between the young and elderly groups than did FDRI. However, QSM values are influenced by factors such as the myelin content, whereas FDRI is a more specific indicator of iron content. Hence, FDRI demonstrated higher specificity selleckchem to iron yet yielded noisier data despite longer scan times and lower spatial resolution than QSM. The robustness, practicality, and demonstrated ability of predicting the change in iron deposition in adult aging suggest that regularized QSM algorithms using single-field-strength data are possible alternatives to tissue iron estimation requiring two field strengths. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To determine the frequency of patients leaving against medical advice (LAMA) in an inpatient psychiatric facility in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.\n\nStudy Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.\n\nPlace and Duration of Study: Institute of Psychiatry,

Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2010 to February 2011.\n\nMethodology: Patients who got admitted during study period irrespective Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library solubility dmso of duration of illness and mode of admission were recruited through non-probability consecutive sampling and followed till discharge to determine their mode of leaving hospital. A thirteen-item proforma was developed

and information was obtained on demographic, socioeconomic, patient related and disease related variables. Descriptive statistics were calculated on SPSS 14.\n\nResults: The total number (n) of participants was 246. Among the participants, Bak apoptosis 96 (39%) left against medical advice (LAMA) whereas 150 (61%) left on regular discharge on physician’s advice. Frequency of patients who left against medical advice was found to be more in males (63.5%), younger age groups (21 – 30 years), lesser educated (more than half were under matric) and with the ICD-10 diagnosis of substance abuse (23.9%). About half of patients who LAMA had a prior history of psychiatric illness and a significant number (37.5%) had a history of previous psychiatric admission.\n\nConclusion: Leaving against medical advice is a frequent problem in psychiatric inpatients and is a matter of great concern for the treating doctors.”
“In conjunction with radiotherapy, the concurrent use of systemic chemotherapy has been proven to improve treatment outcome and thus have been incorporated into the treatment paradigm for patients with loco-regionally advanced Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The benefits from the use of chemotherapy in stage II disease remain controversial.

Patients’ perceptions of their relationships with providers, incl

Patients’ perceptions of their relationships with providers, including lack of shared decision-making or trust, demonstrated strong associations with antidepressant non-adherence. Further research should explore whether interventions for healthcare providers and systems that foster shared decision-making and trust might also improve medication adherence.”
“The microstructure of a 240 mm diameter AISI 4340 mill shaft, quenched and tempered, was analyzed Adavosertib concentration through

its longitudinal cross section. Normally, higher cooling rates promote martensitic structure while the diffusion assisted austenite decomposition products are expected in the lower cooling rate condition. The martensitic reaction takes place inside the grains while the products diffusion starts from the prior austenite

grain boundaries, nucleation and grow processes. An anomalous hardenability behavior was reported with a mixed structure containing martensite and bainite, in different proportion from the surface (higher cooling rate) to the core (lower cooling rate). This behavior was attributed to the wide banded structure. Banding due to the as cast structure segregation, is directly related to the solidification rate as well as the deformation degree due (during) to forging and rolling operations. When the deformation degree is high, the banding thickness is thin and approaches the austenite grain size. In this study the thickness of the bands embedded about four to five austenite grain sizes, in such a way that every band behaves like a particular steel composition. A semi quantitative check details chemical analysis was carried out through the banded structure to understand the differential hardenability behavior. The results were discussed using

classical hardenability formula as well as calculated TTT diagrams for each composition. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses two leader peptidases, LepB1 (SII0716) and LepB2 (SIr1377), responsible for the processing of signal peptide-containing proteins. Deletion of the gene for LepB1 results in an inability to grow photoautotrophically and an extreme Navitoclax light sensitivity. Here we show, using a combination of Blue Native/SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and iTRAQ analysis, that lack of LepB1 strongly affects the cell’s ability to accumulate wild-type levels of both photosystem I (PSI) and cytochrome (Cyt) b(6)f complexes. The impaired assembly of PSI and Cyt b(6)f is considered to be caused by the no or slow processing of the integral subunits PsaF and Cyt f respectively. In particular, PsaF, one of the PSI subunits, was found incorporated into PSI in its unprocessed form, which could influence the assembly and/or stability of PSI. In contrast to these results, we found the amount of assembled photosystem II (PSII) unchanged, despite a slower processing of PsbO.

Our results show that, due to inducible nitric oxide synthase up-

Our results show that, due to inducible nitric oxide synthase up-regulation, abcd3kd cell line produces higher levels of nitrites than native C6 cells. The enhanced production of superoxide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, the increased expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, and the reduction of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities confirm the presence of an oxidative

process. We then measured the concentrations of TNF alpha, IFN gamma, and IL-12 and we observed that abcd3kd cells produce higher amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to native C6 cells. By using neutralizing antibodies against IL-12, not only inflammatory parameters significantly decrease, but nitrite and superoxide production is also affected. This demonstrates that oxidative status of abcd3kd cells is not a direct PMP70 knock-down consequence, but depends on IL-12 release.\n\nThe scenery induced by the knock-down

of PMP70 in C6 cells recall the oxidative and inflammatory status observed in human X-ALD and thus reinforce the idea that PMP70 could affect the clinical course of the disease. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The moisture sorption isotherms of grain and kernel of barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) were determined at 20, 30, 40, and 50 A degrees C. A gravimetric static method was used under 0.112-0.964 water activity BI 6727 (a (w)) range for the determination of sorption

isotherms. The models were compared using the coefficient BGJ398 cost of determination (r (2)), reduced chi-square (chi (2)) values, and on the basis of residual plots. In grain, modified Chung-Pfost (r (2) > 0.99; chi (2) < 0.7) and modified Oswin (r (2) > 0.99; chi (2) < 0.55) models were found suitable for predicting the M (e) -a (w) relationship for adsorption and desorption, respectively. Modified Henderson model was found to give the best fit (r (2) > 0.99 and chi (2) < 0.55) for describing the adsorption and desorption of the kernel. The isosteric heat, calculated using Clausius-Clapeyron equation, was varied between 46.76 and 61.71 kJ g(-1) mol(-1) at moisture levels 7-21% (d.b.) for grain and 47.11-63.52 kJ g(-1) mol(-1) at moisture level between 4% and 20% (d.b.) for kernel. The monolayer moisture content values ranged from 4.3% to 6% d.b. in the case of adsorption of barnyard millet grain and 5.2-6.6% d.b. in the case of desorption at the temperature ranges of 50-20 A degrees C. The monolayer moisture values of barnyard millet kernel ranged from 4.4% to 6.67% d.b. in adsorption and 4.6% to 7.3% d.b. in desorption in the temperature ranges of 50-20 A degrees C.

In addition, H(2)O(2) strongly induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2,

In addition, H(2)O(2) strongly induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not ERK5, in eosinophils. Hydrogen peroxide-triggered activation of caspase-3 and ERK1/2 was attenuated by pretreatment with rotenone.\n\nConclusions: These results suggest that mitochondrial respiration OICR-9429 datasheet is essential for activation of ERK1/2 and caspase-3 in human eosinophils stimulated with H(2)O(2).”
“An electrostatic force microscope system in a scanning electron microscope specimen chamber was developed to measure the surface

potential of an insulator film on a conductive substrate irradiated by an electron beam. As the accelerating voltage varies with the constant beam current, the surface charges positively if the voltage is lower than 1 kV or higher than 3 kV but negatively if the voltage is between 1.1 and 2.7 kV. This positive-negative-positive potential alternation is explained by the relationship between the electron range and the film thickness, and verified by the Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories. By selecting the acceleration

voltage as 30 kV to show less potential variation with time, the spatial potential distribution at the specimen surface is obtained, and a negative dip is observed around 50 mu m from the edge of the irradiated area. The authors find that the depth of the dip increases with an increase in Rabusertib price the electron dose, and the negative potential distribution spreads GDC-0973 nmr over 300 mu m is obtained, which is almost 10 times larger than the primary electron range in the specimen. The characteristic variation in the distribution agrees with a hypothetically derived charge distribution obtained in a different experiment. (C) 2011 American Vacuum Society. [DOI: 10.1116/1.3662079]“
“The development of red color in the peel of red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia

Nakai) is influenced by temperature and light; however, the response patterns vary among different cultivars. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of postharvest treatment with various temperatures (low, high, variant and constant) on detached mature fruit of red Chinese sand pear ‘Mantianhong’ and ‘Meirensu’. Fruit of red apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) ‘Royal Gala’ and red European pear (P. communis L.) ‘Cascade’ received the same treatments for comparison. Furthermore, the effects of light quality and irradiance level on ‘Mantianhong’ pears were evaluated at the optimum temperature for anthocyanin accumulation. Fruit firmness and concentrations of total soluble sugars and organic acids were measured to determine fruit quality. The effect of temperature on red Chinese sand pear fruit color was similar to that of apples, but not European pear.