“The large and diverse population of Latin America is pote

“The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry ( and

generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of SBI-0206965 supplier the Native American ancestry AZD6738 amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America

and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.”
“Inadequate health literacy and physician-patient communication are associated with poor health outcomes and appear to limit quality of medical decision-making. This review presents and consolidates data concerning health literacy, physician-patient communication, and their impact on medical treatment

decisions in elderly cancer patients. This population faces increasingly complex management options, cognitive and sensory deficits, and intergenerational barriers. As a result of these and other factors, older cancer patients have among the lowest health literacy and numeracy rates and often suffer from suboptimal physician-patient communication. These deficiencies impair elderly cancer patients’ ability to understand, recall, and act upon information concerning treatment risk and benefit. This situation also makes it difficult Flavopiridol cost for patients to have self-confidence in communicating with their provider and sharing in the decision-making. Moreover, since older cancer patients usually bring a companion to medical appointments, the positive and negative role of a companion in the context of communication and decision-making needs to be considered. Future research should center on developing ways to identify and overcome health communication barriers to improve geriatric cancer care.”
“A new liquid rice hull smoke extract with a smoky aroma and sugar-like odor prepared by pyrolysis of rice hulls followed by liquefaction of the resulting smoke contained 161 compounds characterized by GC/MS. Antioxidative, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were assessed in vitro and in vivo.

Results: Rhythmic muscular electrical stimulation with needle

\n\nResults: Rhythmic muscular electrical stimulation with needle electrodes was successfully done, but decreased range of motion (ROM) over time. High-frequency and high-amplitude stimulation was also shown to be effective in alleviating decreases in ROM due to muscle fatigue.\n\nConclusions: This model will be useful for investigating the ability of rhythmic muscular electrical stimulation therapy to promote motor recovery, in addition to the efficacy of combining

treatments with spinal cord regeneration therapy after spinal cord injuries.”
“Neutropenia is a severe adverse-event of chemotherapeutics. Neutrophils (ANC) are mainly regulated by granulocyte colony stimulating Akt inhibitor factor (G-CSF). The aim was to characterize the dynamics between endogenous G-CSF and ANC over time following chemotherapy. Endogenous G-CSF and ANC were monitored in forty-nine breast cancer patients treated with sequential adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide and docetaxel. During treatment courses ANC was transiently

decreased and was reflected in an endogenous G-CSF increase, which was well described by a semi-mechanistic model including control mechanisms; when G-CSF concentrations increased the proliferation rate increased and the bone maturation time reduced for ANC. Subsequently, SNX-5422 mw ANC in the circulation increased leading to increased elimination of G-CSF. Additionally, a non-specific elimination for G-CSF was quantified. The ANC-dependent elimination contributed to 97% at baseline and 49% at an ANC of 0.1 center dot 10(9)/L to the total G-CSF elimination. The integrated G-CSF-myelosuppression model captured the initial rise in endogenous G-CSF following chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and the return to baseline of G-CSF and ANC. The model supported the self-regulatory properties

of the system and may be a useful tool for further characterization of the biological system and in optimization of chemotherapy treatment.”
“Inflammatory bowel disease is an intestinal inflammatory RG-7388 chemical structure disorder of multifactorial origin, in which diets that favor high n-6 and low n-3 fatty acids have been implicated. The present study addressed whether dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids alter colonic mucosal response to Citrobacter rodentium (C. rodentium) infection. Mice were fed diets identical except for fatty acids, with an energy percentage of 15% 18: 2n-6 and < 0.06% 18: 3n-3, 4.2% 18: 2n-6 and 1.9% 18: 3n-3, or 1.44% 20:5n-3, 4.9% 22:6n-3, 0.32% 18:2n-6, and 0.12% 18: 3n-3 from safflower, canola, or fish oil, respectively for 3 wk before infection. Dietary oils had no effect on colonic C. rodentium growth but altered colon 20:4n-6/(20:5n-3 +/- 22:6n-3) with 9.40 +/- 0.06, 1.94 +/- 0.08, and 0.32 +/- 0.03% in colon phosphatidylcholine and 3.82 +/- 0.18, 1.14 +/- 0.

Results: The predictive integration of gene expression data a

\n\nResults: The predictive integration of gene expression data and standardized functional similarity information enabled us to identify new treatment response biosignatures. Gene expression data originated from Ado-treated and -untreated EPCs

samples, and functional similarity was estimated with Gene Ontology (GO)-based similarity information. These information sources enabled us to implement and evaluate an integrated prediction approach based on the concept of k-nearest neighbours learning (kNN). The method can be executed by expert-and data-driven input queries to guide the search for biologically meaningful biosignatures. The resulting integrated kNN system identified new candidate EPC biosignatures that can offer high classification performance (areas under the operating characteristic curve > 0.8).

selleck chemical We also Vorinostat purchase showed that the proposed models can outperform those discovered by standard gene expression analysis. Furthermore, we report an initial independent in vitro experimental follow-up, which provides additional evidence of the potential validity of the top biosignature.\n\nConclusion: Response to Ado treatment in EPCs can be accurately characterized with a new method based on the combination of gene co-expression data and GO-based similarity information. It also exploits the incorporation of human expert-driven queries as a strategy to guide the automated search for candidate biosignatures. The proposed biosignature improves the systems-level characterization https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gm6001.html of EPCs. The new integrative predictive modeling approach can also be applied to other phenotype characterization or biomarker discovery problems.”
“Sleep disorders are common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), hereditary ataxias, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Type, frequency, and severity of sleep disturbances vary depending on each of these diseases. Cell loss of the brainstem nuclei that modulates respiration, and dysfunction of bulbar and diaphragmatic muscles increase the

risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in MSA and ALS. The most relevant SDB in MSA is stridor, whereas in ALS nocturnal hypoventilation due to diaphragmatic weakness is the most common sleep breathing abnormality. Stridor and nocturnal hypoventilation are associated with reduced survival in MSA and ALS. In contrast, sleep apnea seems not to be more prevalent in PD than in the general population. In some PD patients, however, coincidental obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be the cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). SDB can also occur in some hereditary ataxias, such as stridor in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease). The presence of concomitant OSA in patients with AD can have deleterious effects on nocturnal sleep, may result in EDS, and might aggravate the cognitive deficits inherent to the disease.

The lipocalins are potentially secreted into the host during tick

The lipocalins are potentially secreted into the host during tick feeding as revealed by specific reactivity of recombinant lipocalins with mouse antibodies to I. persulcatus tick saliva. Preliminary vaccination of mice with recombinant lipocalins elicited that period to reach engorgement was significantly delayed

and the engorgement weight was significantly reduced as compared to the control. Further elucidation of the biological functions of LIPERs are required to fully understand the pathways involved in the Cilengitide in vitro modulation of host immune responses. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights, reserved.”
“Pseudomonas aeruginosa responds to growth on agar surfaces to produce cyclic-di-GMP, which stimulates biofilm formation. This is mediated by an alternative cellular function chemotaxis-like system called Wsp. The receptor protein WspA, is bioinformatically indistinguishable from methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins. However, unlike standard chemoreceptors, WspA does not form stable clusters at cell poles. Rather, it forms dynamic clusters at both polar and lateral subcellular locations.

To begin to study the mechanism of Wsp Cell Cycle inhibitor signal transduction in response to surfaces, we carried out a structurefunction study of WspA and found that its C-terminus is important for its lateral subcellular localization and function. When this region was replaced with that of a chemoreceptor for amino acids, WspA became polarly localized. In addition, introduction of mutations in the C-terminal region of WspA that rendered this protein able to form more stable receptorreceptor interactions, also resulted in a WspA protein that was less capable of activating signal transduction. Receptor chimeras with a WspA C-terminus and N-terminal periplasmic domains from chemoreceptors that sense amino acids or

malate responded to surfaces to produce c-di-GMP. Thus, the amino acid sequence of the WspA periplasmic region did not need to be conserved for the Wsp system to respond to surfaces.”
“Object. The object of this study was to determine the potential of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to preoperatively assess AZD8055 molecular weight the stiffness of meningiomas.\n\nMethods. Thirteen patients with meningiomas underwent 3D brain MIRE examination to measure stiffness in the tumor as well as in surrounding brain tissue. Blinded to the MRE results, neurosurgeons made a qualitative assessment of tumor stiffness at the time of resection. The ability of MRE to predict the surgical assessment of stiffness was tested using a Spearman rank correlation.\n\nResults. One case was excluded due to a small tumor size. In the remaining 12 cases, both tumor stiffness alone (p = 0.023) and the ratio of tumor stiffness to surrounding brain tissue stiffness (p = 0.

001) SD was higher using a single blood pressure measurement per

001). SD was higher using a single blood pressure measurement per visit (compared with the mean of 3 measurements

per visit P<.001) and with automated vs manual devices (P<.001). In summary, number and timing of visits and device used to measure blood pressure influence VVV and need to be considered when designing, interpreting, and comparing studies. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012; 14: 744-750. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Policy makers and researchers increasingly look to systematic reviews as a means of connecting research and evidence more effectively with policy. Based on Australian research into rural and remote Smoothened Agonist in vitro primary health care services, we note some concerns regarding the suitability of systematic review methods when applied to such settings. It suggests that rural and other health services are highly complex and researching them is akin to dealing with “wicked” problems. It proposes that the notion of “wicked” problems may inform our understanding of the issues and our choice of appropriate methods to inform health service policy. Key issues including the complexity of health services, methodological limitations of traditional reviews, selleck compound the nature of materials under review, and the importance

of the service context are highlighted. These indicate the need for broader approaches to capturing relevant evidence. Sustained, collaborative synthesis in which complexity, ambiguity and context is acknowledged is proposed as a way of addressing the wicked nature of these issues. Aust Health Rev 2009: 33(4): 592-600″
“Background and Objectives: Bone vascularization is a key factor in the bone healing process following X-ray irradiation. Preserving the vascular network from X-ray induced injury is a relevant approach in the promotion of bone healing. Previously, we developed a protocol of laser preconditioning (810 nm Bromosporine in vivo diode laser, 36 J/cm(2)) prior to X-ray radiation (18.75 Gy) which protects

the bone vascular network from deleterious effects of X-ray radiation. The aim of this present work is to characterize the effects of laser preconditioning on the bone through a morphological analysis of vascular parameters.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Digital images of the vascular plexus were taken through an optical bone chamber which was implanted onto the calvaria of rabbits. Bespoke software was used for the quantification of the vessels (classified in four groups according to their diameter), vessel length, and number of nodes at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Twenty rabbits were divided into four groups: control group #1(n = 5); laser group #2 (n = 5). X-ray radiation group #3 (n = 5), laser preconditioning 24 hours prior to X-ray radiation group #4 (n = 5).\n\nResults: The bone vascular network was stable for groups #1 and #2. Statistical analysis showed a significant reduction of each observed vascular parameter for groups #3 and #4.

A P value of <0.05 was considered significant.\n\nResults: The incidence of PONV

was not significantly different among acupressure, metoclopramide and ondansetron groups during 24 hours. Also, the severity of PONV was not significantly different between acupressure, metoclopramide, and ondansetron in the recovery and ward.\n\nConclusion: Acupressure at the P6 point causes a significant reduction in the incidence and severity of PONV 24 hours after strabismus surgery as well as metoclopramide (0.2 mg/kg) and ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg) intravenous for patients aged 10 or older. (Irct ID: IRCT138807152556N1)”
“Introduction: Traditionally, the origin of the third germ layer and its special formation of coelomic cavities by enterocoely is regarded to be an informative AG-881 order character

in phylogenetic analyses. In early deuterostomes such as sea urchins, the mesoderm forms through a single evagination pinching off from the apical end of the archenteron which then gives off mesocoela and metacoela on each side. This echinoid-type coelom formation has conventionally been assumed to be ancestral for learn more Deuterostomia. However, recent phylogenetic analyses show that Echinodermata hold a more derived position within Deuterostomia. In this regard a subgroup of Hemichordata, namely enteropneusts, seem to host promising candidates, because they are supposed to have retained many ancestral deuterostome features on the one hand, and furthermore share some characteristics with chordates on the other hand. In enteropneusts a wide range of different modes of coelom formation has been reported and in many cases authors of the original observations carefully detailed the limitations of their descriptions, while these doubts disappeared in subsequent reviews. In the present study, we investigated the development of all tissues in an enteropneust, Saccoglossus kowalevskii AICAR mouse by using modern morphological techniques such as complete serial sectioning for LM and TEM, and 3D-reconstructions, in order to contribute new data to the elucidation

of deuterostome evolution.\n\nResults: Our data show that in the enteropneust S. kowalevskii all main coelomic cavities (single protocoel, paired mesocoela and metacoela) derive from the endoderm via enterocoely as separate evaginations, in contrast to the aforementioned echinoid-type. The anlagen of the first pair of gill slits emerge at the late kink stage (similar to 96 h pf). From that time onwards, we documented a temporal left-first development of the gill slits and skeletal gill rods in S. kowalevskii until the 2 gill slit juvenile stage.\n\nConclusions: The condition of coelom formation from separate evaginations is recapitulated in the larva of amphioxus and can be observed in crinoid echinoderms in a similar way.

It is noteworthy that we could also show in vivo stimulation of t

It is noteworthy that we could also show in vivo stimulation of triazolam metabolism by gefitinib, resulting in a lower oral triazolam exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo example of direct stimulation of CYP3A4 activity after

oral drug administration. Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor Overall, this study illustrates how Cyp3a(-/-) and CYP3A4-Tg mice can be used to study drug-drug interactions. The data clarify that for drugs that are not P-glycoprotein substrates, intestinal metabolism also can be more important than hepatic metabolism after oral administration.”
“Infection with influenza A virus causes acute respiratory tract infections in humans and may lead to lethal diseases including pneumonia. Identifying host factors that are involved in the severity of infectious diseases caused by influenza A virus is considered important for the prevention and treatment of these viral infections. This report demonstrated that Siva-1 is crucial for the induction of apoptosis caused by infection with influenza A virus and is involved in virus replication. Susceptibility to apoptosis induced by influenza A www.selleckchem.com/products/pifithrin-alpha.html virus infection was increased in human lung-derived A549 cells, which stably express Siva-1. In addition, induction of apoptosis after influenza A virus infection was strongly inhibited by knockdown of Siva-1 expression. Furthermore, the replication

of influenza A virus was significantly suppressed in A549 cells in which Siva-1 expression was inhibited and the effect of Siva-1 knockdown was eliminated by treatment with Z-VAD-FMK. These findings suggest that the caspase-dependent pathway for induction of apoptosis is involved in Siva-1-mediated influenza A virus replication.”
“Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) affect several macromolecules and cellular components in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In this work, the effect of various ROS-generating compounds on the Escherichia coli membrane was studied. Membrane fatty acid SNX-5422 in vitro profiles, oxidative damage levels and bacterial resistance to these

toxicants were determined. Studies included wild-type cells as well as a strain exhibiting a modified monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) profile (accomplished by overexpressing the beta-hydroxyacyl acyl carrier protein dehydratase-encoding gene, fabA). Levels of membrane MUFAs and oxidative damage markers decreased slightly upon toxicant exposure with a concomitant increase in cell resistance to these ROS-generating compounds. A direct relationship between MUFAs and lipid peroxidation was observed. The lower the MUFA the lower the peroxide levels, suggesting that MUFAs are targets for membrane lipid oxidation.”
“OBJECTIVE: To describe the case of a patient who developed symptomatic bradycardia upon initiation of oral ziprasidone and later with oral aripiprazole, both of which resolved shortly after discontinuation of therapy.

Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD)

Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this observational study was to investigate factors associated with the risks of morbidity and mortality, and with growth, in commercial dairy heifers calves. A total of 2874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1-7 days of age and followed for approximately 3 months. Using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dl, the incidences of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) were 11 and 32%, respectively. A cut-point

of 5.7 g/dI was the most predictive of BRD before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity = 40%, specificity = 69%). The positive predictive value was poor (PPV = 18%), but the negative predictive value was good (NPV Selleckchem AZD8186 = 87%). A cut-point of 5.2 g/dl was most predictive of death before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity = 27%, specificity = 89%, PPV = 5%, NPV = 98%). Serum total protein during the first week of ALK signaling pathway life was a poor predictor of NCD. Over 23% of calves were treated for diarrhea. Risk factors were weight at enrollment, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, and an interaction between season of birth and herd-level incidence of NCD. Almost 22%

of calves were treated at least once for BRD. Factors associated with an increased risk of BRD included herd-level incidence of BRD, season of birth, navel dipping, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, buy BVD-523 failure of transfer of passive immunity, and manual control of temperature in pre-weaning housing. Administration of supplemental antibody products at birth was associated with a reduced incidence of BRD. Overall mortality was 3.5%. Risk of mortality was increased by treatment for BRD and other diseases. The mean average weight gain was 0.95 kg/day (range: 0.11-1.62 kg/day; SD = 0.2). Twinning status, FTP, treatment for NCD or other diseases, and month of birth influenced body weight. This study illustrated relationships

among various diseases, mortality, and growth. Furthermore, it demonstrated the importance of colostrum for protection against BRD and improved growth performance, while bringing into question the optimal method of determining failure of transfer of passive immunity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is one of the inflammatory markers related to CVD. It is unclear whether inflammation is a mechanistic intermediary between SCH and CVD. We aimed to investigate the association between SCH and hsCRP in a Taiwanese population. A baseline cohort of 2,494 participants over the age of 19 was recruited in Taiwan from 2006 to 2008. SCH was defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 5.61-19.9 mIU/L with normal thyroxine concentrations (a total T4 level of 4.9-12.0 mu g/dL).

Many patients were transported to nearby local hospitals from the

Many patients were transported to nearby local hospitals from the scene of the accident; other patients were transported to more distant hospitals. Eighty-five patients were transported to hospitals through mobile

emergency support units, whereas the other patients were transported directly by fire officers from the 119 Fire Officer Centre. One patient died in the transport. In conclusion, our national emergency medical service and disaster response system each suffer from many problems-especially a lack of cooperation among related departments and insufficient communication therein. The onboard planning and practice of a disaster plan is required, and a reliable information system between the scene of a maritime disaster and Selleckchem Fludarabine our emergency medical service system should be developed. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 17: 177-180 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“The present article reports the role of gold nanoparticles, i.e., AuNp (having diameter similar to 2-4 nm), in non-covalent interaction between fullerenes (C-60 and C-70) selleck products and a monoporphyrin (1) in toluene. Both UV-vis and fluorescence measurements reveal considerable reduction in the average value of binding constant (K-av) for the C-70-1 system (KC70-1(av) = 19,300 dm(3) mol(-1)) in presence of AuNp, i.e., KC70-1-AuNp(av) = 13,515 dm(3) mol(-1) although no such

phenomenon is observed in case of C-60-1 system, viz., KC60-1(av) = 1445 dm(3) mol(-1) and KC60-1-AuNp(av) = 1210 dm(3) mol(-1). DLS study reveals sizeable amount of increase in the particle size of C-70-1-AuNp nanocomposite, i.e., similar to 105 nm, compared to C-60-1-AgNp

system, e.g., similar to 5.5 nm which gives very good support in favor of decrease in the value of K-av for the former system. SEM study reveals that nanoparticles are dispersed in larger extent in case Torin 1 order of C-70-1-AuNp system. Time-resolved fluorescence study envisages that deactivation of the excited singlet state of 1 by C-70 takes place at a faster rate in comparison to C-60 in presence of gold nanoparticles. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) are benign cortical tumors that are frequently associated with the medically intractable focal epilepsy. In this study, the authors delineate the clinical characteristics of DNTs in children and evaluate the role of cortical dysplasia (CD) in the epileptogenicity to find out the optimum surgical strategy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for clinical data of children with DNT, who underwent surgery between 1996 and 2006. The adopted surgical methods were uniform according to the tumor location and included intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)-guided resection. The prognostic factors were evaluated for the two prognostic group categorized by the seizure outcome at one year after surgery.

Initially, microbial counts of fresh minced meat showed microbial

Initially, microbial counts of fresh minced meat showed microbial loads PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 datasheet between 3.5 and 5.0 log cfu/g. The observed microbial diversity was relatively high, and the most abundant bacteria differed among the samples. During storage an increase of microbial counts coincided with a dramatic decrease in bacterial diversity. At the end of the storage period, most samples showed microbial counts above the spoilage level of 7 log cfu/g. A relatively similar bacterial community was obtained regardless of the manufacturing batch and the preservative used, with Lactobacillus algidus and Leuconostoc sp. as the most dominant microorganisms. This suggests that both bacteria played an important role in the

spoilage of minced meat packaged under modified atmosphere. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“High-percent mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. We conducted a meta analysis of five genome-wide association studies of percent mammographic density and report an association with rs10995190 in ZNF365 (combined P = 9.6 x 10(-10)). Common variants in ZNF365 have also recently been associated with susceptibility to breast cancer.”
“In recent years, the increasing awareness that

somatic mutations and Bafilomycin A1 cost other genetic aberrations drive human malignancies has led us within reach of personalized cancer medicine (PCM). The implementation of PCM is based on the following premises: genetic aberrations exist in human malignancies; a subset of these aberrations drive oncogenesis and tumor biology; these aberrations

are actionable (defined as having the potential to affect management recommendations based on diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive implications); and there are highly specific anticancer agents available that effectively modulate these targets. This article highlights the technology underlying cancer genomics and examines the early results of genome sequencing and the challenges met in the discovery IPI-145 manufacturer of new genetic aberrations. Finally, drawing from experiences gained in a feasibility study of somatic mutation genotyping and targeted exome sequencing led by Princess Margaret Hospital-University Health Network and the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, the processes, challenges, and issues involved in the translation of cancer genomics to the clinic are discussed. J Clin Oncol 30:647-660. (c) 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology”
“Background. To evaluate the clinical performance of photodynamic diagnostic (PDD) after oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for assessment of tumor type and surgical margins in laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery.\n\nMaterials and Methods. This is a prospective, non-randomized single-center study. A total of 77 patients with a renal mass < 4 cm diameter underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). For photosentization, 1.5 g 5-ALA was administered orally 4 h prior to surgery.