Findings of several studies show a higher tooth loss in females t

Findings of several studies show a higher tooth loss in females than males.4�C7,11 In contrast, within the UK population, tooth loss was similar in the two gender groups.8 The present study is about prosthetic needs with regard selleck chemicals llc to the national pattern of decreasing edentulism in Turkey. It was determined that socioeconomic status and low educational level were negatively associated with edentulism; this conclusion is similar to the results of previous studies.1,2,9,12,23 Studies of removable dentures wearers revealed that between 20% and 30% were dissatisfied with one or both dentures. For new and well-constructed dentures, between 10% and 15% of the patients were still dissatisfied.24,25 Silverman et al26 claimed that males accepted their dentures best.

Barenthin27 found that women were somewhat more sensitive than men to the condition of their dentures. In the current study, the data indicated that women (46.8%) and men (42.4%) were satisfied with their dentures. When gender and the complaints from dentures were evaluated together, there did not seem to be a significant difference between maladjustment and broken denture complaints. The complaints about aesthetics were seen mostly among females. The reasons of tooth loss and denture incompatibility did not depend on gender. In this case, the patients requested denture treatment only when necessary. John et al28 reported that partial dentures were more tolerable than their complete counterparts. If the prior denture types and the patient complaints were evaluated together, patients wearing partial dentures were generally pleased with the conservatism and functionality expected from partial dentures.

The older age groups in the present study required more removable complete dentures than the younger age groups, who required more removable partial dentures. Patients who used complete dentures had various complaints, including maladjustment, incompatibility and excessive moving of total dentures. This is an expected situation because total dentures are only tissue supported. In the prosthetic treatment decision making process, a patient-clinician dialogue is important in achieving an optimal treatment result. If expensive prosthetic treatments (e.g. implant treatments) are made financially available for all individuals by means of subsidies, this can influence the existing needs and create a new need among the population.

The results also showed that the education level of patients who applied at the OHC for treatment were at primary or secondary school levels. Most of the patients who applied at the university clinic had secondary school or a university Anacetrapib degree. In the previous studies, the patients who had no education had a total denture and other education levels had a partial denture. Also, previous studies have reported the same-association between educational levels and general and/or oral health.

9,10 Plasma is the biological fluid into which fluoride must pass

9,10 Plasma is the biological fluid into which fluoride must pass for its distribution elsewhere in the body as well as its elimination from the body. For these reasons, plasma is often referred to as the central compartment of the body.6 Factors that include fluoride intake from various sources may affect plasma fluoride levels, and thus fluoride content of breast milk. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the fluoride levels of breast milk and plasma of lactating mothers and the correlation between breast milk and plasma fluoride levels in mothers who regularly consume drinking water with low levels of fluoride. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred twenty five mothers aged between 20�C30 years old with hospitalized newborns due to icterus neonatorum were included in the study.

Signed consent was obtained from the participants after explanations regarding the study protocol. The human ethic committee of Selcuk University Experimental Research Center (SUDAM) approved this study (Approval No:2004�C034). Besides being otherwise healthy, the primary selection criteria stipulated the absence of fluoride supplement consumption one month before delivery. The participants regularly consumed drinking water from the same city supply which has been previously shown to contain low levels of fluoride (approx. 0.3 ppm).11 The mothers consumed a regular hospital diet. Milk and plasma samples were collected from lactating mothers within 5 to 7 days after delivery. For milk samples, the breast was swabbed with cotton wool and distilled water before milk collection.

The mother was instructed to press the breast gently to facilitate collection of 5 ml of milk into a polyethylene tube. At the same appointment, 5 ml of blood was obtained and transferred into a fluoride-free heparinized polyethylene tube. Thereafter, the plasma was separated from the blood by centrifugation for 3 min at 3500 g. Milk and plasma samples were further stored at ?18��C until analyses. Before fluoride measurements, the samples were thawed at room temperature. To determine fluoride concentrations, equal volumes of TISAB II buffer (Orion Research, U.S.A.) was added into the samples. All samples were homogenized using magnetic stirrers throughout the measurements. An ion-selective electrode (Model 96�C09, Orion Research, USA) was used in conjunction with a Model EA 910 ion analyzer (Orion Research, USA) to measure the fluoride concentrations of the breast milk and plasma samples.

Paired t test was used to determine Anacetrapib the differences between fluoride concentration of breast milk and plasma. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess any possible relationship between plasma and breast milk fluoride levels.12 RESULTS The concentrations of fluoride in breast milk and plasma are presented in Table 1. The mean fluoride concentration of the plasma samples was 0.017��0.011 ppm (range 0.006�C0.054 ppm).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank Sanofi-Aventis(r) for donating

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank Sanofi-Aventis(r) for donating the medication for this study. Footnotes Study conducted at LIM 41 – Laboratory of Medical Investigation of the Musculoskeletal System and in the Group of Osteometabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of the School of Medicine of Universidade de S?o Paulo. Citation: Zelada F, Almeida AM, Pailo AF, Bolliger Neto R, Okazaki E, Rezende MU. Viscosuplementation in patients with hemophilic arthropathy. Acta Ortop Bras. [online]. 2013;21(1):12-17. Available from URL:
Chronic low back pain is one of the main complaints of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. It is defined by the presence of pain in the lumbar region lasting for more than 7-12 weeks.

1 It entails restriction of the capability for work, limitation for social activities, emotional problems 2 and reduced quality of life. 3 Chronic low back pain is frequently associated with depression. 4 Between 16.4 and 73.3% of the patients with chronic low back pain present depression. 5 The presence of depression is associated with the greater intensity and persistence of pain, 6 greater incapacity, 2 , 7 higher economic cost 2 and more adverse life events. The literature investigated did not produce any trials that were aimed at studying the impact of depression on the characteristics of chronic low back pain and on the fear of movement (kinesiophobia). The aim of the present study was to describe characteristics of pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain associated with depression, in comparison to patients with chronic low back pain without depression.

METHOD This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted in the outpatient physiotherapy section of a state government institution, on patients diagnosed with chronic low back pain. The study was carried out in the period from August 2008 to August 2009. The participants who agreed to take part in the study signed the informed consent form. The project was approved by the Institutional Review Bureau (Report no. 307/08). The inclusion criteria were: patients of both sexes, from 18 to 60 years of age, diagnosed with chronic low back pain at least three months previously.

Patients with neurological diseases (cerebrovascular accident, cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease), patients who had suffered any type of recent fracture, patients who were in a postoperative process of any nature, those with important acute diseases in physiotherapeutic treatment, Cilengitide patients with chronic cancer pain and patients with chronic low back pain with nonmusculoskeletal causes were excluded. A total of 193 individuals, referred by orthopedists for outpatient physiotherapy treatment, were included in the study. The interviews were held by a single investigator, previously trained to apply the instruments.

3,5�C14,17,18,23 The data for hypodontia, excluding the third mol

3,5�C14,17,18,23 The data for hypodontia, excluding the third molars, in both genders combined varies from 0.3% meanwhile in the Israeli population3 to 11.3% in the Irish13 and 11.3% in Slovenian populations.20 The different findings could be explained by the variety in the samples examined in terms of age range, ethnicity and type of radiographs used for evaluation. Table 1 Comparison of findings of hypodontia in various populations. As a rule, if only one or a few teeth are missing, the absent tooth will be the most distal tooth of any given type24 i.e. lateral incisors, second pre-molars and third molars. In many populations, it has been demonstrated that, except third molars, the most commonly missing teeth are the maxillary lateral incisor, mandibular and maxillary second premolar.

3,10,15,20 According to Jorgenson24 the mandibular second premolar is the tooth most frequently absent after the third molar, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor and maxillary second premolar, for Europeans. In the literature, hypodontia was found more frequently in females than males.2,3,4,7,20 Most authors report a small but not significant predominance of hypodontia in females, but statistically significant differences have been found in some researches.2,3,4,7 Many studies have demonstrated that there is no consistent finding as to which jaw has more missing teeth. In the literature, few studies have compared the prevalence rates of tooth agenesis between the anterior and posterior regions and showed the distribution of missing teeth between the right and left sides.

Literature search in June 2006 revealed no previous studies about the prevalence of hypodontia in the permanent dentition in Turkish population and in Turkish orthodontic patients. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hypodontia in the permanent dentition among a group of Turkish sample who sought orthodontic treatment and to compare present results with the specific findings of other populations. The occurrence was evaluated in relation to gender, specific missing teeth, the location and pattern of distribution in the maxillary and mandibular arches and right and left sides. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 4000 orthodontic patient files from the Department of Orthodontics of Erciyes University, Kayseri and K?r?kkale University, K?r?kkale were reviewed.

The patient files (panoramic radiographs, specific periapical radiographs, dental casts, anamnestic data), were the only sources of information used to diagnose hypodontia.21 If an accurate diagnosis of hypodontia could not be made, the files were excluded. Moreover, radiographs of patients with any syndrome or cleft lip/palate were excluded from the study. The Carfilzomib patients had no previous loss of teeth due to trauma, caries, periodontal disease, or orthodontic extraction. A total of 2413 patients�� records of sufficient quality were selected.

5% glutaraldehyde for 120 min Next, the cells

5% glutaraldehyde for 120 min. Next, the cells blog post were submitted to three 5-minute rinses with 1 mL PBS and post-fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide for 60 min. Afterwards, the cover glasses with cells were dehydrated in increasing concentrations of ethanol solutions (30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, 100%). Finally, the cells on the discs were subjected to drying by low surface tension solvent 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3,-hexamethyldisilazane (98% HMDS; Acros Organics, New Jersey, USA) and kept in desiccators for 12 hours. Then, the cover glasses were fixed on metal stubs and gold sputtered. These procedures allowed the cell morphology analysis in SEM. (JEOL-JMS-T33A Scanning Microscope, JEOL-USA Inc., Peabody, MA, USA). RESULTS The values of SDH enzyme activity (as determined by MTT assay) are presented in Table 1, according to the presence or absence of the bleaching agent and SA concentration.

In groups G2 and G3, in which SA was added to the culture medium, a discrete increase in cell metabolism was observed. As a consequence, cell viability values of higher than 100% were recorded in these experimental groups. However, this higher cell metabolism determined in groups G2 and G3 was not statistically different when compared to the control group (G1). When SA was associated with CP, a significant decrease in the cytotoxic effects of CP was observed, with higher SDH production (P<.05). The lowest metabolic values were observed in groups in which only the experimental bleaching agent was added to the culture medium. Considering the control group as 100% cell metabolism, the values obtained by the MTT assay regarding SDH production for groups 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, were 110.

06%; 108.57%; 90.35%; 97.63% and 66.88%, respectively. Table 1. Production of SDH enzyme (means �� standard deviation) detected by MTT assay, according to SA concentration and the presence of the bleaching agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of cell morphology In the control group (G1) and in groups G2 and G3, a considerable amount of MDPC-23 cells, organized in epithelioid nodules, remained attached to the glass substrate. Such cells presented a large cytoplasm, and a number of cytoplasmic processes originated from their membrane (Figure 1A�CC). Similar amounts of cells with the same morphological features were observed in group G4 (Figure 1D).

In group G5, most of the MDPC-23 cells that remained on the substrate exhibited a few short cytoplasmic processes. These cells were also organized in epithelioid nodules and presented a smooth, round Carfilzomib shape (Figure 1E). In group G6, a great number of cells were detached from the glass substrate. Therefore, wide areas with granular structures, similar to the residual membrane of dead cells, were seen on the glass disk. However, the small number of cells that remained attached to the substrate maintained their organization in epithelioid nodules (Figure 1F). Figure 1.

Only immunohistochemical staining above 30% was classified as HER

Only immunohistochemical staining above 30% was classified as HER-2 overexpression. 8 , 13 Statistical analysis All the variables were described by absolute and relative frequencies, except for age which was described by mean and standard KOS 953 deviation. To compare the groups we applied the student’s t-test (age) and Fisher’s exact test (other variables). To estimate the survival curves, the Kaplan-Meier method was applied and to compare them we used the log-rank test. The sample size was calculated in PEPI (Programs for Epidemiologists) version 4.0 and based on the study by Kaya et al. 4 For a significance level of 5% (p �� 0.05), a power of 90%, a survival proportion of 90% in the VEGF negative group and a proportion of 20% in the VEGF positive group, we obtained a minimum total of 22 patients.

The analyses were performed in the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program, version 18.0. RESULTS The results of this study are summarized in Tables 1 and and22. Table 1 Significance of the variables compared with the expression of VEGF. Table 2 Significance of the variables compared with the expression of HER-2. Fifteen patients were male and 12 female, with average age of 13 years (seven to 27 years). The cases were divided by age into over (n=21) and under (n=6) 14, considering a greater or lesser risk of tumor aggressiveness. Thirteen individuals concluded the Brazilian protocol (GBTO), nine remained in treatment during this study 3 and five did not have data in their medical records. All osteosarcomas were staged as IIB and III according to Enneking’s Staging System.

14 Eight patients (30%) presented pulmonary metastases upon diagnosis and were classified as stage III. None of the patients presented a description of non-pulmonary metastases. The histological subtypes were described according to the WHO – Classification of Bone Tumors, 2002. 15 The classification of Huvos-Ayala was used to describe the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy as poor (I-II) and good (III-IV). 16 More than half of the patients (56%) presented poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment, while 22% presented good response and another 22% did not present records of anatomopathological examinations. Table 1 describes all the clinical and pathological variables analyzed. The follow-up interval was recorded from initial biopsy until July 2009.

The minimum follow-up period was six months. Only four samples (15%) presented overexpression of VEGF. All the samples positive for VEGF Batimastat were found in the male sex, and over 14 years. Three quarters (75%) of the patients who overexpressed VEGF presented pulmonary metastases, inferring a theoretical risk for worse prognosis already described in previous publications. 4 , 7 Table 1 summarizes the correlation between VEGF and the variables analyzed. We did not find significant correlation when conducting descriptive and univariate analyses.