(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3462430]“<

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3462430]“
“This article sheds light on some structural SHP099 changes in thermally treated viscose fibers at a constant temperature of 100 +/- 1 degrees C at different time periods. The obtained optical parameters were

used to calculate the crystallinity, density, Herman’s orientation function, average orientation, and form birefringence. In addition, the stress optical coefficients, thermal stress, molar refractivity, specific refractivity, and polarizabilities along and across the axis and segment anisotropy were obtained. Measurements of the refractive indices helped us to calculate the dielectric constant, dielectric susceptibility, surface reflectivity, and transparency transmittances. The mechanisms of structural variation for the viscose fibers due to the annealing process were examined with the structural details for optothermal parameters. The relationships between the measured and calculated parameters are given in illustrations and curves. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1306-1312,

2010″
“The sequential simplex method is a useful tool for rapidly optimizing a process by moving through factor space via a relatively simple geometric algorithm. This method was employed to optimize growth and survivin-BCCP production in Escherichia coli Origami

GDC-0449 molecular weight B using PF 00299804 zinc sulphate supplemented culture medium. Five experimental parameters were investigated: concentration of zinc sulphate and IPTG, pH, temperature, and agitation rate. Optimized conditions were as follows: 190 mu M zinc sulphate with 246 mu M IPTG, pH 7, at a temperature of 23.5 degrees C and agitation rate of 345 rpm. The results for cell density and survivin-BCCP production were, 17% and 140% higher than in non-zinc supplemented medium and 12.6% and 25.5% higher than could be obtained by varying one-factor-at-a-time. The present work demonstrates the effectiveness of zinc sulphate supplementation and the efficiency of the sequential simplex optimization method in obtaining high yields. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) paddy-field like superlattices of Mn(3)O(4) cubic nanoparticles have been investigated by magnetization measurements. The 2D ordered structure extends over several microns in size. Each nanocube is of single-crystal about 6 nm in size. The magnetic properties are investigated with the powders dispersed in nonmagnetic n-eicosane to “”dilute”" the dipolar interaction.

7%, p < 0 001) compared to the overall ASCUS hr-HPV rate (34 1

7%, p < 0.001) compared to the overall ASCUS hr-HPV rate (34.1%). When age was stratified, the ASCUS with Candida <= 20 and 21-25 age-groups had significantly higher rates of hr-HPV detection compared to the over all ASCUS rates (65.0% vs. 58.5%, p < 0.001 and 61.6% vs. 50.5%, p < 0.04, respectively).

Conclusion

Our study shows that the presence of Candida does not exclude hr-HPV and that atypical cytologic features in the presence of Candida should not be entirely attributed to reactive cellular changes, especially

in younger women. (Acta Cytol 2009;53:150152)”
“Bi(0.90)La(0.10)Fe(0.85)Zn(0.15)O(3/)Bi(0.90)La(0.10)Fe(0.95)Zn(0.05)O(3) Selinexor bilayers with different thickness ratios were deposited on Pt-coated silicon substrates by radio frequency sputtering. A polycrystalline structure with a random grain orientation is induced for all bilayers, owing

to the introduction of the bottom Bi(0.90)La(0.10)Fe(0.95)Zn(0.05)O(3) layer with a random orientation. Impedance spectroscopy shows that oxygen vacancies dominate the dielectric relaxation and electrical conduction of these bilayers, and their dielectric relaxation process gradually endures a transition from a long-range relaxation, the coexistence of long-range and localized relaxation, to a localized relaxation with increasing thickness ratios of Bi(0.90)La(0.10)Fe(0.85)Zn(0.15)O(3). Selleck IPI-549 Scaling behavior indicates that their dielectric relaxation and JQ-EZ-05 conduction mechanisms are independent of the measurement temperature. Different electrical conduction behavior in impedance determines the electrical properties of these bilayers. The bilayer with a higher thickness ratio of Bi(0.90)La(0.10)Fe(0.95)Zn(0.05)O(3)

exhibits a higher remanent polarization owing to the involvement of a low defect concentration, as confirmed by the impedance spectroscopy and the dielectric behavior. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3636390]“
“Purpose: To evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system for dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and compare it with a currently used clinical method of interpreting breast MR image findings that includes the use of commercially available automated software for kinetic image data processing and visualization.

Materials and Methods: In this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, a training set of 121 breast lesions (77 malignant, 44 benign) was used to train the CADx system. After practicing with 10 training cases, six breast imaging radiologists assessed the likelihood of malignancy and the need for biopsy with a separate test set of 60 lesions (30 malignant, 30 benign).

The mean size of the left atrium was 48 +/- 5 mm The complete su

The mean size of the left atrium was 48 +/- 5 mm. The complete surgical ablation protocol was achieved in 97% of patients, with no death, and no early stroke or pacemaker implantation in the early postoperative period. In 63% of patients, the left atrial appendage was excluded with an epicardial clip. An endocardial touch-up for achievement of bidirectional block of pulmonary veins was necessary in 10 patients (33%) and on the box, (roof and floor) lesions in 20 patients (67%). Freedom from atrial fibrillation was 77% after surgical ablation and 93% after the completed hybrid procedure.

The sequential, two-staged

hybrid strategy (surgical thoracoscopic Verubecestat molecular weight followed by catheter ablation) is feasible and safe with a high post-procedural success and seems to represent the optimal treatment with low risk load and potentially long-term benefit for patients with a persistent DMH1 and long-standing persistent form atrial fibrillation.”
“Objective: Up to 55% of patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) experience sleep disturbance. Prior evaluation of children without CdLS with similar intellectual disability and

self-injurious behavior suggests that sleep disturbances may be related to insomnia or circadian issues.

Methods: Caregivers of 31 patients (19 children) with CdLS completed a sleep history questionnaire focused on sleep patterns and evening sleep behavior to screen for signs and symptoms of insomnia and circadian rhythm disorders.

Results:

click here The mean age of participants was 14.5 years (range 0.6-37). Major difficulty in falling asleep (75% pediatric, 33% adult) and staying asleep (52% pediatric, 33% adult) was noted. Overall, time to sleep onset was 27.0 +/- 17.6 min, however in those with stated sleep onset difficulty, average time to sleep was 37.8 +/- 16.4 min (p = 0.002). The mean number of pediatric nighttime awakenings was 1.5 overall and 2.1 in those with stated sleep maintenance difficulties versus 0.7 and 1.5 respectively in adults. Children with CdLS tended to fall back asleep slower (61.8 min) than adults (14.9 min), but none of the comparisons between adult and pediatric sleep measures were significant. Greater than half of participants reported a family member with a possible circadian rhythm disorder.

Conclusions: Symptoms suggestive of insomnia or circadian rhythm disorder are prevalent in this cohort of children and adults with CdLS. Adults may have less severe symptoms than children, suggesting some improvement over time although this study is underpowered for this analysis. Further studies are necessary to better characterize sleep disturbance in the CdLS population. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Combining an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) lowers blood pressure (BP) by 4/3 mmHg compared to either agent alone, although this additive effect may be abolished with maximal monotherapy dosing.

Results Two hundred ninety patients underwent an initial assessm

Results. Two hundred ninety patients underwent an initial assessment of whom 238 (82%) were followed up at 12 months. At 12 months, 171 (72%) patients reported some pain over the past 24 hours. Thirty-five patients (14.7%) reported Selleckchem URMC-099 chronic pain. Five factors independently predicted

the 24-hour pain severity: preinjury physical role function, preinjury employment status, initial 24 hours pain score, higher beliefs in the need for medication, and compensable injury (R(2)=0.21, P<0.0001). Four factors predicted the presence of chronic pain at 12 months: not working prior to injury, total Abbreviated Injury Scale, initial pain severity, and initial pain control MEK inhibitor clinical trial attitudes (pseudo R(2)=0.24, P=0.0001).

Conclusions. Factors present at the time of injury can allocate patients into high- or low-risk groups. The majority of cases of chronic pain emerging from the high-risk group warrant more intense clinical attention. We recommend recording these factors in discharge documentation as indicators of persistent pain.”
“Only one description of trichoblastic sarcoma exists in the literature.

Here, we present the first case of trichoblastic sarcoma with heterologous osteosarcomatous differentiation. Biospy 1 demonstrated an intermediate-grade trichoblastic sarcoma with pleomorphic cells and atypical mitotic figures observed only in the stroma. The epithelium contained no malignant cells. The histologic morphology was reminiscent of an intermediate-grade phyllodes tumor of the breast. Biopsy 2, an excisional biopsy taken 7 months later, showed a high-grade sarcoma with osteosarcomatous selleck products differentiation. Immunohistochemistry performed on both specimens

showed positive CD10 and bcl-2 staining in the sarcomatous component; p63 was positive in the benign epithelium only. p53 was negative in both the benign epithelium and the malignant stroma. Ki-67 labeling was approximately 10% in both components. Specimen 3, a complete rhinectomy performed 3 months later, showed a poorly differentiated sarcoma. Six months following his rhinectomy procedure, multiple pulmonary nodules consistent with metastatic disease were detected on chest computed tomography. This is the first case report documenting the evolution of an intermediate-grade trichoblastic sarcoma to a high-grade lesion with osteosarcomatous differentiation, to a poorly differentiated sarcoma. The tumor morphologically resembles malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. Our case is the first to show negative p53 and positive bcl-2 staining in a trichoblastic sarcoma. We propose that cutaneous trichoblastic sarcoma is pathogenetically analogous to phyllodes tumors of the breast, adenosarcoma of the uterus, or ameloblastoma of the oral cavity.

025)

ConclusionsThese results suggest a potential rol

025).

ConclusionsThese results suggest a potential role for allergen-specific IgA2 antibodies in the induction of food tolerance. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that immature or impaired production of allergen-specific IgA2 may be associated with the pathophysiology of food allergy, a defect that seems to be selective for the culprit allergen.”
“Objectives: If researchers want to assess reliably different aspects of general health in the migrant populations, they need translations of internationally see more used health assessment scales with appropriate cross-cultural adaptations and satisfactory psychometric

properties. A systematic review was performed to assess the quality of the cross-cultural adaptations and the psychometric properties of health assessment scales measuring cognition, mood, activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, and loneliness. We focused on the scales that were adapted for use with Turkish, Arab, and Surinamese (Creole and Hindi) individuals aged 65 years and older.

Study Design and Setting: PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases were systematically searched, and selected articles were cross-checked for other relevant publications.

Results: In total, 68 relevant studies of the Turkish, Arab, and Surinamese populations were identified.

To arrive at an appropriate cross-culturally adapted scale, five steps are required. Six studies followed this complete process. Only a few studies assessed all the psychometric properties of the cross-culturally 4-Hydroxytamoxifen adapted scales. The studies in which these were best assessed primarily involved cognitive and functional scales.

Conclusion: Cross-cultural adaptations are insufficient, and psychometric properties RepSox nmr are unknown for many translated

health assessment scales. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Adult-onset Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LD), or dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma, is a hamartoma considered pathognomonic for Cowden disease. Classically, LD has a progressive and insidious onset of symptoms. In this case report, we present a patient having rapid neurological deterioration from acute-onset LD. There are only three reported cases of acute LD presentation. A 22-year-old female presented to the emergency department with diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and gait instability which developed within 6 h. A non-contrast CT scan revealed diffuse attenuation in the left cerebellum and mild ventricular dilatation. LP revealed no organisms. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed salient “”tiger stripe”" appearance of the left cerebellar cortex and effacement of the fourth ventricle. The patient subsequently underwent suboccipital craniotomy and gross total resection of the lesion.

(C) 2010 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia

Published by E

(C) 2010 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia.

Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“With relatively low efficiency, differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by ectopic SBE-β-CD supplier expression of a few transcription factors. An understanding of the mechanisms that underlie data emerging from such experiments can help design optimal strategies for creating pluripotent cells for patient-specific regenerative medicine. We have developed a computational model for the architecture of the epigenetic and genetic regulatory networks which describes transformations resulting from expression of reprogramming factors. Importantly, our studies identify the rare temporal pathways that result in induced pluripotent cells. Further experimental tests of predictions emerging from our model should lead to fundamental advances in our understanding of how cellular identity is maintained and transformed.”
“Introduction and objectives: Pharmacoinvasive strategy represents an attractive alternative to primary angioplasty. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging we compared the left ventricular outcome of the pharmacoinvasive strategy and primary angioplasty for the reperfusion of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic

selleck screening library resonance was performed 1 week and 6 months after infarction in two consecutive cohorts of patients included in a prospective university hospital ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction registry. During the period 2004-2006, 151 patients were treated with pharmacoinvasive strategy (thrombolysis followed by routine non-immediate angioplasty). During the period 2007-2008,

93 patients were treated with primary angioplasty. A propensity score matched population was also evaluated.

Results: At 1-week cardiovascular magnetic resonance, pharmacoinvasive strategy and primary click here angioplasty patients showed a similar extent of area at risk (29 +/- 15 vs. 29 +/- 17%, P = .9). Non-significant differences were detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 1 week and at 6 months in infarct size, salvaged myocardium, microvascular obstruction, ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume index and end-systolic volume index (P > .2 in all cases). The same trend was observed in 1-to-1 propensity score matched patients. The rate of major adverse cardiac events (death and/or re-infarction) at 1 year was 6% in pharmacoinvasive strategy and 7% in primary angioplasty patients (P = .7).

Conclusions: A pharmacoinvasive strategy including thrombolysis and routine non-immediate angioplasty represents a widely available and logistically attractive approach that yields identical short-term and long-term cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived left ventricular outcome compared to primary angioplasty. (C) 2010 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.

The brevity of the PHQ-9 is conducive to routine screening of pat

The brevity of the PHQ-9 is conducive to routine screening of patients with epilepsy. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with functional and structural changes of the peritoneal membrane, also known as peritoneal remodeling. The peritoneal membrane is affected by many endogenous and exogenous factors such as cytokines, PD fluids, and therapeutic interventions.

Here, we present an overview of various studies that have investigated pharmacologic interventions aimed at regression of peritoneal damage and prolongation of PD treatment.”
“In this study, we investigated the application of the luminescence spectroscopy technique in steady-state conditions to study glass fiber-epoxy F161 prepregs. We conducted this study by comparing selleck screening library the results obtained from the intrinsic fluorescence with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy. The extrinsic fluorescence of 9-anthroic acid (9-AA) was also used. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was also used to characterize the epoxide resin. The prepregs containing 9-AA and those that did not were heat-treated at 177 C (F161) for 1100 min at a 2 degrees C/min heating Selleck PD173074 rate. The results obtained by both methods indicated that the crosslinking reaction could be monitored by analysis of the spectral changes of the emission bands of the prepreg and 9-AA. The intrinsic

emission at 320 nm was attributed to the fluorophore group containing the epoxy ring and was used to calculate the conversion degree. The photophysical behavior of the 9-AA probe indicated a reduction of free volume of the polymeric matrix with curing process. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 664-671, 2010″
“In order to design a device to carry out direct emissivity measurements, a key point is the analysis of all the uncertainty components that give rise to the combined standard uncertainty. This will permit to choose the most appropriate measurement method to minimize the uncertainty, and also to identify the sources of the largest errors. If the experimental GDC-0449 ic50 device is already in use, the complete

uncertainty characterization, in addition to the emissivity uncertainty calculation, will permit the improvement of the device capabilities. Thus, a guideline to the experimentalists working in this subject is provided. In this work, a complete study of the uncertainty components in direct emissivity determination is carried out. First of all, the emissivity measurement method and the uncertainty estimation methodology are introduced. After that, the influence of the uncertainties of each of the magnitudes used to obtain the emissivity is analyzed theoretically. The most important error sources depending on the measuring parameters have been identified. Finally, as a practical example, the error sources on a low emissivity sample are experimentally studied.

4 learn

4 find more +/- 2.1 months (range 1 to 12). Mean operative time and fluoroscopic screening time were similar in the 2 groups (p > 0.05). However, mean operative time per cm 2 stone and fluoroscopic screening time per cm(2) Stone were significantly prolonged in the post-ESWL group (p < 0.05). At a mean followup of 5.6 +/- 1.2 months (range 3 to 6) an overall success rate of 89% was achieved. Success and complication rates were comparable in the 2 groups.

Conclusions: Although similar success and

complication rates were achieved with percutaneous nephrolithotomy after failed ESWL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy is usually more difficult with prolonged operative time and fluoroscopic screening time per cm(2) stone due to the tissue effects of ESWL and scattered stone fragments in the pelvicaliceal system.”
“BRAINSTEM CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS (CMs) continue to present a considerable source of controversy in the neurosurgical community, with an accumulating volume of literature detailing their natural history and their surgical and radiosurgical management. As part of a systematic review of the literature, 12 natural history studies, 52 surgical series, and 14 radiosurgical series were tabulated. Annual bleeding rates for brainstem CMs ranged from 2.3% to 4.1% in natural history studies and from IWP-2 supplier 2.68% to 6.8% in surgical series before intervention. Rebleed rates as

high as 21.5% in natural history studies and

greater than once per year in surgical series were reported. A total of 684 of 745 CMs (92%) were documented as completely resected in 46 series that provided specific information on resection rates. Early postoperative morbidity ranged from 29% to 67% in larger surgical series, although it was often transient. Defactinib research buy Thirty of 61 partially resected lesions rebled; 4 of these rebleeds were fatal. Twelve additional patients died from surgically related causes for a combined postoperative rebleeding and Surgically related mortality rate of 1.9%. Across 45 series (683 patients), 85% of patients were reported as the same or improved, 14% were worse, and 1.9% died from surgically related causes at long-term follow-up. Patients with anterolateral pontine lesions generally appeared to have a better functional recovery, whereas those requiring excision via the floor of the fourth ventricle had relatively worse long-term outcomes. Radiosurgical series demonstrated conflicting data; some reported a statistically significant decrease in CM rebleeding rates after 2 years, whereas others did not, partially related to dosimetry. Postradiosurgical morbidity was nonetheless significantly greater for CMs than for arteriovenous malformations.

Please refer to the online version of this article for a more detailed natural history and radiosurgical review and a discussion of brainstem CM clinical presentation and diagnostic evaluation.

The mammalian viruses included those of the Adenoviridae, Herpesv

The mammalian viruses included those of the Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae, Retroviridae, Circoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Astroviridae, Flaviridae, Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Parvovirinae; insect viruses included those of the Baculoviridae, Iflaviridae, Dicistroviridae, Tetraviridae, and Densovirinae; fungal viruses included those of the Chrysoviridae, Hypoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae; and phages included those of the Caudovirales, Inoviridae, and Microviridae and unclassified phages. In addition to the viruses and phages associated with

GSK690693 mouse the insects, plants, and bacterial flora related to the diet and habitation of bats, we identified the complete or partial genome sequences of 13 novel mammalian viruses. These included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, a circovirus, a bocavirus, picornaviruses, a pestivirus, and a foamy virus. Pairwise alignments and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these novel viruses showed little genetic similarity with previously reported viruses. This study also revealed a high prevalence and diversity of bat astroviruses and coronaviruses in some provinces. These findings have expanded our understanding of the viromes of bats in China and hinted at the presence of a large variety of unknown mammalian viruses in many common

bat species of mainland China.”
“The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire 5-Fluoracil supplier (TPSQ) and the Multidimensional Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire-Reduced (MSTQ-R) in non-clinical

adolescents. The final sample consisted of 991 participants with a mean age of 14.7 years (S.D.=1.8). The internal consistency of the TPSQ subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.89, and that of the MSTQ-R subscales ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Construct validity analysis from the TPSQ subscales showed a three-dimensional solution based on the factors social disorganisation, aberrant APR-246 molecular weight processing and anhedonia. For its part, factor analysis of the MSTQ-R also showed a three-dimensional solution based on the factors: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and impulsive-nonconformity. The TPSQ and MSTQ-R appear to have good psychometric properties and to be useful instruments for the measurement of schizotypy in adolescence. Moreover, the factor structure of these measures resembles that seen in young adult samples and provides further empirical evidence of the multidimensional structure of the instruments that we use to measure the complex schizotypy construct. Future research should explore in more depth the psychometric properties of these self-report instruments and improve our understanding of schizotypy in adolescents. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3A plays important roles in virus replication, virulence, and host range.

Previous reports have demonstrated that immunization of rhesus mo

Previous reports have demonstrated that immunization of rhesus monkeys against rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV)

learn more can reduce both local and systemic replication of RhCMV following experimental RhCMV challenge. These studies used prime/boost combinations of DNA expression plasmids alone or DNA priming and boosting with either inactivated virion particles or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the same antigens. Viral outcomes included reduced RhCMV replication at the site of subcutaneous inoculation and RhCMV viremia following intravenous inoculation. Since shedding of cytomegalovirus from mucosal surfaces is critical for horizontal transmission of the virus, DNA priming/MVA boosting was evaluated for the ability to reduce oral shedding of RhCMV following subcutaneous challenge. Of six rhesus monkeys vaccinated

exclusively against RhCMV glycoprotein B (gB), phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), and immediate-early 1 (IE1), half showed viral loads in saliva that were lower than those of control monkeys by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. Further, there was a strong association of memory pp65 T cell responses postchallenge Immunology related inhibitor in animals exhibiting the greatest reduction in oral shedding. These results highlight the fact that a DNA/MVA vaccination regimen can achieve a notable reduction in a critical parameter of viral replication postchallenge. The recently completed clinical trial of a gB subunit vaccine in which the rate of HCMV infection was reduced by 50% in the individuals receiving the vaccine is consistent with the results of this study suggesting that additional immunogens are likely essential for maximum protection in an outbred human population.”
“Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease, and interferon-based therapy cures only 40 to 80% of patients, depending on HCV genotype. Research was accelerated S3I-201 by genotype 2a (strain

JFH1) infectious cell culture systems. We previously developed viable JFH1-based recombinants encoding the structural proteins (core, E1, E2), p7, and NS2 of prototype isolates of the seven major HCV genotypes; most recombinants required adaptive mutations. To enable genotype-, subtype-, and isolate-specific studies, we developed efficient core-NS2 recombinants from additional genotype 1a (HC-TN and DH6), 1b (DH1 and DH5), and 3a (DBN) isolates, using previously identified adaptive mutations. Introduction of mutations from isolates of the same subtype either led to immediate efficient virus production or accelerated culture adaptation. The DH6 and DH5 recombinants without introduced mutations did not adapt to culture.