Those dogmatists who by verbal trickery can make white black, and black white, will never be convinced of anything, but Ambulocetus is the very animal that they proclaimed impossible in theory.”4 Continuing, Steinberg writes that “one of the most challenging problems of the theory of evolution is the origin of life” and that Darwinian evolution fails to explain how life arose and developed. To put it mildly, this is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a rather odd statement for a biologist. It
does not take an expert to know that evolution theory is not about “how life arose”. Evolution theory is about the evolution of the variety of living Proteasome inhibitor organisms from a common ancestor. As to the origin of that common ancestor, the first replicator, this question is beyond
evolution theory. The essence of the theory of evolution is that organisms are related by descent from common ancestors. Over time, organisms change and diversify as they adapt to different environments. Species that share a recent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical common ancestor are more similar to each other than species whose last common ancestor is more remote. Thus, humans and chimpanzees are, in configuration and genetic make-up, more similar to each other than they are to baboons, elephants, or kangaroos. But other concepts, commonly used in literature about Darwinian evolution (especially in popular literature), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical such as “survival of the fittest” should not be understood simplistically and to a large degree are not essential to the modern understanding Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of Darwinian evolution. In fact most currently available information leads us away from the idea of survival of the
fittest and toward a model of survival of the “barely tolerable”.5 Tending to oversimplify the concept of “survival of the fittest”, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical we might expect that the most impressive results of evolution are the complex and perfected adaptations of organisms to their environments. For example, there are those that propose that the capacity of each individual to mount an immune response to a pathogen represents human evolution in miniature.6–8 There is enormous variation and diversity in the antibody population – the system is capable of recognizing more than 108 antigen patterns. By recombination, mutation, insertion, and deletion, gene fragments are packaged by lymphocytes, forming populations of receptor complexes that compete Linifanib (ABT-869) to take hold of foreign antigens. Those that succeed get to reproduce their progeny. The successive rounds of mutations and selections that occur allow the body’s immune system to choose a population of cells that specifically synthesize the correct antibody profile to combat the specific infection. The truth of the matter, however, is that no evidence for evolution is stronger than the presence of rudimentary or vestigial structures in nearly all organisms including humans.