The acetylation of histones leads to de condensation of chro matin that becomes accessible to transcriptional machin ery, in contrast, the inert chromatin is enriched in deacetylated histones. Consistent with chromatin structure dependent activation of gene expression, many transcriptional co activators possess HAT activity whereas transcriptional co repressors are associated with HDACs. Since CT99021 DNA binding domains are invariably missing from HATs and HDACs, they are recruited to their target promoters and enhancers via protein protein interactions. The HDACs represent an ancient super family of enzymes conserved from yeast to man. The mammalian HDACs are divided into the classical family of 11 zinc dependent hydrolases and the non classical family of seven NAD dependent HDACs called sirtuins.
Based on their phylogeny, domain organization and sub cellular localization, the mammalian HDACs are further split into four sub classes. The HDAC members of class I contain a Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries central deacetylase domain surrounded by short NH2 and COOH termini. Class I HDACs are mainly localized in the nucleus and possess potent enzymatic activity to ward histones. Six members of Class II are further sub grouped into Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Class IIa and Class IIb, based on whether they possess one or two catalytic sites, re spectively. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries The class IV consists of a solitary mem ber HDAC11, with homologies to Rpd3 and Hda1 proteins of yeast. Finally, sirtuins, the NAD dependent lysine deacetylases, belong to Class III. The actions of HATs and HDACs are intimately involved in the mechanisms of cardiac and skeletal muscle gene expression.
A number of studies have demonstrated a positive therapeutic potential of HDACIs in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries The pan HDACIs are thought to attenuate pathological car diac hypertrophy via their ability to alter chromatin structure and gene expression in the heart, and in pri mary cultures of cardiac myocytes. It is believed that by perturbing the epigenetic landscape of chromatin, the pan HDAC inhibitors exert genome wide changes in both myocytes as well Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries as other cell lineages in the intact heart. However, the molecular underpin ning of the altered gene expression in myocytes versus non myocyte cells in the intact heart treated with pan HDACIs is poorly understood. The batch to batch variability that is encountered in cardiac myocytes in pri mary cultures makes them less suitable to answer this question with rigor.
The H9c2 cells have emerged as an excellent in vitro alternative to primary cardiac myocytes. Although lack ing the elaborate contractile apparatus of bona fide cardiac myocytes, H9c2 cells elicit robust hypertrophy associated signature of fetal gene expression in response to angiotensin II, phenylephrine and IL 18, additionally, akin to what selleck catalog occurs in the intact heart, pathological hypertrophy of H9c2 cardiac myocytes could be attenu ated by pan HDAC inhibitors, TSA and CBHA.