In contrast to naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs, DN T cells have to be activated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to induce their regulatory
potential. The suppressive activity of DN T cells is neither mediated indirectly by modulation of APCs nor by competition for T-cell growth factors. Furthermore, DN T-cell-mediated suppression toward responder T cells is TCR dependent and requires novel protein synthesis. In contrast to murine MAPK Inhibitor Library research buy DN T cells, which eliminate effector T cells via Fas/FasL or perforin/granzyme, human DN T cells suppress proliferation of responder T cells by cell contact-dependent mechanisms. Taken together, our data indicate that human DN T cells exert strong immunosuppressive effects on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and may serve as a new therapeutic approach to treat autoimmunity and transplant rejection. Suppression of immune responses by Tregs is critical
for the induction and maintenance of self-tolerance. Tregs have been shown to be involved in downregulating immune responses Everolimus in autoimmunity, transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and tumor immunity 1–3. Numerous studies demonstrated that a variety of T-cell subsets possess immunoregulatory properties: the population of thymus-derived naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)+ T cells is currently the most extensively investigated subset of Tregs and their role has been studied in a wide range Carnitine dehydrogenase of animal models and in humans 4–7. However, inducible Tregs such as T-regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells,
T-helper 3 (Th3) cells, CD8+CD28− T cells, and TCR-αβ+ CD4−CD8− double-negative (DN) T cells are generated in the periphery and also show the ability to inhibit immune responses 8–11. In both mice and humans, about 1–5% of all peripheral T cells are of TCR-αβ+ DN phenotype 11, 12. These cells express a specific set of cell surface molecules and show a characteristic cytokine profile 11, 13. The group of L. Zhang was the first to identify and characterize the immunoregulatory function of DN T cells. They have demonstrated that murine DN T cells specifically eliminate activated anti-donor CD4+, CD8+ T cells and B cells 11, 13–15. Moreover, adoptive transfer of DN T cells prolongs skin and heart allograft survival in murine models 11, 13, 16–19. Others have shown that mouse DN T cells are highly potent in suppressing T-cell responses both in vitro and in vivo in an antigen-specific manner and therefore induce skin and islet allograft survival 20. Even now, the function and ontogeny of human DN T cells still remains elusive. Of interest, in a recent clinical report, an inverse linear relationship between the severity of GvHD and the frequency of DN T cells could be demonstrated in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation 21.